As your partner in health and safety, we are continuously monitoring regulatory updates that may affect your operations. See the CDC's latest COVID-19 updates and resources below.

CDC Posts Scientific Updates Including Key Findings from a Collection of Peer Reviewed Articles Including the Following:

Epidemiology - Substantial underestimation of SARS-CoV-1 infection in the United States (We, et al. nature communications, 9/9/2020)

  • By April 18, 2020, the estimated cumulative SARS-CoV-2 incidence in the US was ~2%.
  • The number of estimated cumulative SARS-CoV-2 infections was 8.6 times the number of confirmed infections: 6,454,951 vs 751,245.
  • 84% of the difference between estimated cumulative and reported confirmed cases was due to incomplete testing and 16% was due to test inaccuracy.
  • The estimated cumulative infection rate (range: 3.1 to 65.0/1,000) and ratio of estimated cumulative to reported confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections (range: 5 to 33) varied widely by state.
  • Differences among states were driven by different transmission rates, testing rates, and test positivity rates in each state rather than modeling assumptions.
  • Implications: Estimated cumulative SARS-CoV-2 infections were greater than confirmed reported infections, due in part possibly to challenges with testing. Monitoring underestimation of reported confirmed cases can provide more accurate estimates of the cumulative burden of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Convalescent plasma correlate with virus neutralization (Salazar, et al. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 9/10/2020)

  • While the use of convalescent plasma (CP) treatment was shown to neutralize virus, the effect of CP in the treatment of COVID-19 likely depends on numerous characteristics including antibody level, avidity, and target as well as neutralization activity. Understanding how to best screen CP donors to identify those with NAb titers and characteristics that may optimize use of CP as treatment may be important.

Reduced Maximal Aerobic Capacity after COVID-19 in young adult recruits, Switzerland (Crameri et al. Eurosurveillance, 9/10/2020)

  • A decrease in pulmonary aerobic capacity was observed among military recruits who recovered from COVID-19. Long-term effects on lung function have been noted after mild to moderate influenza infection and may also be present after COVID-19. Additional research to understand the incidence of any long-term consequences is needed.

https://www.cdc.gov/library/covid19/092220_covidupdate.html

Guidance for Reopening Buildings After Prolonged Shutdown or Reduced Operation

Ensure the safety of your occupants and building water system and devices

Summary of Changes

  • Added guidance for lead and copper in building water systems with low or no use
  • Added guidance for mold awareness, monitoring, and remediation during and after prolonged building shutdowns
  • Updated Legionella guidance for people with weakened immune systems and the use of respiratory protection when flushing water systems
  • Updated title to reflect content

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/building-water-system.html

Guidance for Reopening Buildings After Prolonged Shutdown or Reduced Operation

Ensure the safety of your occupants and building water system and devices

Summary of Changes

  • Added guidance for lead and copper in building water systems with low or no use
  • Added guidance for mold awareness, monitoring, and remediation during and after prolonged building shutdowns
  • Updated Legionella guidance for people with weakened immune systems and the use of respiratory protection when flushing water systems
  • Updated title to reflect content

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/building-water-system.html

Holiday Celebrations

As many people in the United States begin to plan for fall and winter holiday celebrations, CDC offers the following considerations to help protect individuals, their families, friends, and communities from COVID-19. These considerations are meant to supplement—not replace—any state, local, territorial, or tribal health and safety laws, rules, and regulations with which holiday gatherings must comply. When planning to host a holiday celebration, you should assess current COVID-19 levels in your community to determine whether to postpone, cancel, or limit the number of attendees.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/daily-life-coping/holidays.html

Contact Tracing Workflow in a Non-US setting

This document is intended to be professionally generated as a job aid for distribution via CDC country offices to local Ministries of Health or National Public Health Institutes with the intent to be given to facilities with frontline healthcare workers doing contact tracing, case investigations, community outreach, or in other ways working with potential contacts. It is meant to serve as a visualization for these individuals to understand the contact tracing process flow, the need for daily monitoring of all contacts, and what will cause the need for a case investigation.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/global-covid-19/contact-tracing-workflow.html

Considerations for Monitoring and Evaluation of Mitigation Strategies Implemented in K-12 Schools

As K-12 schools reopen for in-person instructions, it is important to have systems in place for the monitoring and evaluation of COVID-19 mitigation strategies. This resource provides example evaluation questions, indicators, and data sources to help state and local public health and education agencies, school and district administrators, and evaluation professionals monitor and evaluate the implementation and impact of COVID-19 mitigation strategies implemented in K-12 schools on the transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/monitoring-evaluation-k-12.html

Monitoring and Evaluation Checklist for K-12 Schools

As K-12 schools reopen for in-person instruction, it is important to have systems in place for the monitoring and evaluation of COVID-19 mitigation strategies. Monitoring and evaluation provide practical information for making timely decisions, addressing community needs, and identifying best practices to promote the health, safety, and well-being of students, faculty, and staff.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/monitoring-evaluation-checklist-k-12.html

Considerations for Outdoor Learning Gardens and Community Gardens

These recommendations are intended for managers of outdoor learning gardens (e.g., school gardens) and community gardens. Outdoor learning gardens are often affiliated with schools and provide outdoor learning and access to healthy food for students. Community gardens are sections of land collectively gardened by a group of people to produce and share affordable fruits and vegetables within their communities.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/outdoor-garden.html

Overview of Testing for SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19)

Clarifications made on September 18, 2020:

Due to the significance of asymptomatic and pre-symptomatic transmission, this guidance further reinforces the need to test asymptomatic persons, including close contacts of a person with documented SARS-CoV-2 infection.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/testing-overview.html

How COVID-19 Spreads

CDC updated guidance regarding how COVID-19 spreads. COVID-19 is thought to spread mainly through close contact from person to person, including between people who are physically near each other (within about 6 feet). People who are infected but do not show symptoms can spread the virus to others. We are still learning about how the virus spreads and the severity of illness it causes.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/how-covid-spreads.html

Keep Children Healthy During the COVID-19 Pandemic

CDC updated guidance regarding ways to promote children’s wellbeing. Topics include:

  • Teach and reinforce everyday preventive actions
  • Bring your child for their healthcare visits
  • Help your child stay active
  • Help your child stay socially connected
  • Help your child cope with stress
  • Ask about school meal services
  • Consider taking extra precautions

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/daily-life-coping/children.html

Help Stop the Spread of COVID-19 in Children

CDC updated guidance regarding ways to protect children from getting and spreading COVID-19. Topics include:

  • Wash hands
  • Avoid close contact
  • Wear a mask
  • Clean & disinfect
  • Consider changing travel plans

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/daily-life-coping/children/protect-children.html

COVID-19 in Children and Teens

CDC updated guidance regarding information for parents and caregivers about COVID-19 in children and teens. Children & teens can get COVID-19. While fewer children have been sick with COVID-19 compared to adults, children can be infected with the virus that causes COVID-19, can get sick from COVID-19, and can spread the virus that causes COVID-19 to others. Children, like adults, who have COVID-19 but have no symptoms (“asymptomatic”) can still spread the virus to others.

Most children with COVID-19 have mild symptoms or have no symptoms at all. However, some children can get severely ill from COVID-19. They might require hospitalization, intensive care, or a ventilator to help them breathe. In rare cases, they might die.

CDC and partners are investigating a rare but serious medical condition associated with COVID-19 in children called Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C). We do not yet know what causes MIS-C and who is at increased risk for developing it. Learn more about MIS-C.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/daily-life-coping/children/symptoms.html

Considerations for Outdoor Farmers Markets

CDC updated guidance regarding considerations for outdoor farmers markets. Farmers market managers should consider the recommendations below to help ensure safe access to food while helping prevent the spread of COVID-19.

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought new challenges to food security in the United States. Access to healthy food options and nutrition are an important part of overall physical and mental health. Across the United States, farmers markets have been named an essential service because of their role in supporting local farms and providing communities access to fresh, healthy food during the pandemic. Outdoor farmers markets provide a lower risk shopping option with immediate and lasting benefits for shoppers and the community at-large.

These considerations are meant to supplement—not replace—any state, local, territorial, or tribal health and safety laws, rules, and regulations that organizations must follow. Farmers market managers should collaborate with state and local health officials to determine whether to implement these considerations as-is or tailor them to their community’s needs. Farmers market managers should continue monitoring the spread of COVID-19 in the community they serve and have a plan in place to adjust their operations as needed.

Farmers market managers may also benefit from reviewing CDC’s COVID-19 guidance and considerations on community-based organizations, workplaces, events and gatherings, and food service providers. Farmers market managers should consider CDC’s information on people at higher risk of severe illness.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/outdoor-farmers-markets.html

Ten Clinical Tips on COVID-19 for Healthcare Providers Involved in Patient Care

CDC updated guidance regarding ten clinical tips on COVID-19 for healthcare providers involved in patient care. Please see the link to the PDF file below:

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/downloads/hcp/fs-ten-clinical-tips.pdf

  

N95 and Other Respirators

CDC updated guidance regarding information on N95 and other respirators.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/n95-other-respirators.html

  

Emergency Shelters in Disaster Response in Global, Low Resource Settings

CDC updated guidance regarding emergency shelters in disaster response in global, low resource settings. Individuals housed in emergency shelters in response to disasters, such as shared living spaces and sanitary facilities, may be exposed to crowded conditions. Emergency managers, shelter coordinators and managers, and public health professionals should understand the risk of the introduction and spread of SARS-Cov-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, and other infectious diseases in these settings. This document provides suggestions to assist disaster response shelter management and staff in taking appropriate actions for reducing the possibility of COVID-19 virus spread among shelter staff, volunteers, residents, and visitors before, during, or after a disaster. For the purposes of this document, “emergency shelters” include small-, medium-, and large-scale, organized and temporary accommodations for persons displaced by disasters. Facilities may be residential (e.g., dormitories, hotels, etc.) or non-residential (e.g., sports stadiums, schools, churches, etc.), with varying degrees of sanitary infrastructure. The considerations are presented in table format and are organized by mitigation principle (physical distancing, hand hygiene, cleaning and disinfection, and respiratory hygiene).

Document audience: This document is intended for use by any person, institution, or organization preparing for or responding to disasters during the COVID-19 pandemic and for those assisting these entities (national and local governments, CDC country offices, and others) in low-resources settings.

What this document adds to existing guidance: This document provides suggestions that can be considered by emergency shelter staff in low-resource settings and can be adapted to follow national or local guidelines, and to account for local context. Local populations can be engaged in the planning and decision-making process by identifying trusted stakeholders and community leaders to provide feedback on proposed mitigation measures before their implementation.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/global-covid-19/emergency-shelters-low-resource-global.html

Considerations for Food Pantries and Food Distribution Sites

CDC updated guidance regarding considerations for food pantries and distribution sites. The COVID-19 pandemic has brought new challenges to food security across the US. Access to healthy food options and nutrition are important to overall physical and mental health and well-being. Food insecurity is expected to continue to increase for many households with more children not attending childcare and school in-person (a source of nutritious meals for many students) and with changes in employment status during the COVID-19 pandemic. Food pantries and food distribution sites provide donated food at no cost to people who have limited access and play an important role in communities. Community organizations often work with food pantries to provide food to families. Food pantries can have their own building, be in schools or churches, be mobile (e.g., in a truck), or distribute food in other ways, such as drive-through pickup distribution. Managers of food pantries and distribution sites should take special precautions to help staff, volunteers, and clients stay safe while continuing to prioritize the respect and dignity of clients. Managers of food pantries and food distribution sites can consider these steps to help ensure safe access to food for their clients while helping prevent the spread of COVID-19. These considerations are meant to supplement—not replace—any state, tribal, local, and territorial health and safety laws, rules, and regulations with which organizations must comply.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/organizations/foodpantries.html

  

Operational Considerations for Personal Protective Equipment in the Context of Global Supply Shortages for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic: Non-US Healthcare Settings

This document provides specific operational considerations that healthcare settings and healthcare authorities can review in the context of global supply shortages of personal protective equipment (PPE), to help with decision making in order to provide needed surge capacity during the COVID-19 response.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/non-us-settings/emergency-considerations-ppe.html

  

Indicators for Dynamic School Decision-Making

CDC updated guidance regarding indicators for dynamic school decision making. It is critical for schools to open as safely and as quickly as possible for in-person learning. To enable schools to open and remain open, it is important to adopt and correctly and consistently implement actions to slow the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, not only inside the school, but also in the community. This means that students, families, teachers, school staff, and all community members should take actions to protect themselves and others where they live, work, learn, and play. In short, success in preventing the introduction and subsequent transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in schools is connected to and dependent upon preventing transmission in communities. Topics include:

  • Background
  • Purpose of indicators
  • Description of indicators
  • Application and interpretation of indicators
  • Indicators and thresholds for COVID-19 risk
  • Mitigation strategies

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/schools-childcare/indicators.html

  

What is Telemedicine in a Non-US Setting

CDC updated guidance regarding what is telemedicine in a non-US setting.

What is telemedicine? Telemedicine is the use of electronic information and telecommunication technology to get the health care you need while practicing social distancing. All you need is a phone or device with the internet to continue your medical care while protecting yourself and your healthcare provider from COVID-19. Speak with your doctor to determine whether telemedicine is appropriate for your health needs.

Why telemedicine now? To decrease your contact with healthcare facilities, other patients, and healthcare staff in order to reduce the risk of COVID-19 and keep you and your family healthy.

What are the benefits of telemedicine?

  • Allows you to talk to your doctor live over the phone or video chat
  • Allows you to send and receive messages from your doctor using chat messaging or email
  • Allows for remote monitoring of patients
  • Save on travel time/transportation costs
  • Reduced wait time for services
  • Reduced number of visits to clinic

When can you use telemedicine? To contact your healthcare provider about the management of your health generally or about management of an existing health condition during the COVID-19 outbreak.

What types of care can you get using telemedicine?

  • Screening for COVID-19, testing recommendations, and guidance on isolation or quarantine
  • General health care (i.e. wellness visits, blood pressure control, advice about certain non-emergency illnesses, like common rashes)
  • Prescriptions for medication
  • Nutrition counseling
  • Mental health counseling

How do you connect with a healthcare provider to schedule a telemedicine visit? Call your healthcare provider to check if they are offering telemedicine visits and what technology you need to have a telemedicine visit.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/global-covid-19/telemedicine.html

Travel: Frequently Asked Questions and Answers

CDC updated guidance regarding frequently asked questions and answers pertaining to travel. Topics include:

  • General
  • Domestic Travel
  • International Travel
  • Air or Cruise Travel

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/travelers/faqs.html

  

Travelers Prohibited from Entry to the United States

CDC updated guidance regarding travelers prohibited from entry to the United States. Several Presidential proclamations established restrictions on the entry of certain travelers into the United States in an effort to help slow the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). With specific exceptions, foreign nationals who have been in any of the following countries during the past 14 days may not enter the United States. For a full list of exceptions, please refer to the relevant proclamations in the links below.

  • China
  • Iran
  • European Schengen area (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Monaco, San Marino, Vatican City)
  • United Kingdom (England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland)
  • Republic of Ireland
  • Brazil

As further provided in each proclamation, citizens and lawful permanent residents of the United States, certain family members, and other individuals who meet specified exceptions, who have been in one of the countries listed above in the past 14 days will be allowed to enter the United States. More information about what to do after arriving in the United States is available on CDC’s After You Travel webpage.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/travelers/from-other-countries.html

Know When to Delay your Travel to Avoid Spreading COVID-19

CDC updated guidance regarding when to delay your travel to avoid spreading COVID-19. People who are sick, have recently tested positive for the virus that causes COVID-19, or have been exposed to a person with COVID-19 pose a risk to others during travel. This page gives advice on when and how long people should delay their domestic or international travel to avoid spreading infection.

  • Don’t travel if you or any of your travel companions
    • Are sick
    • Have suspected or diagnosed COVID-19 (even if you don’t have symptoms)
    • Have been around someone with suspected or diagnosed COVID-19 in the past 14 days (even if they did not have symptoms).
  • CDC can restrict the travel of people known or believed to have COVID-19, or who have been exposed to a person with COVID-19, if they plan to travel. State, local, and territorial health departments and foreign public health authorities can also restrict travel of infected or exposed people within their jurisdictions.
  • Getting trip cancellation insurance might help ensure you are able to make a last-minute cancellation or change your itinerary without losing money on flights, cruises, train tickets, or pre-paid lodgings.
  • For all travel, take preventive measures to protect yourself and others.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/travelers/when-to-delay-travel.html

  

Returning to Work

CDC updated guidance regarding returning to work. What you need to know:

  • In general, the more closely you interact with others and the longer that interaction, the higher the risk of COVID-19 spread.
  • If you return to work, continue to protect yourself by practicing everyday preventive actions.
  • Keep these items on hand when returning to work: a mask, tissues, and hand sanitizer with at least 60%
    alcohol, if possible.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/daily-life-coping/returning-to-work.html

  

People Who Are at Increased Risk for Severe Illness

CDC updated guidance regarding people who are at increased risk for severe illness such as older adults and people with underlying medical conditions. Everyone is at risk for getting COVID-19 if they are exposed to the virus. Some people are more likely than others to become severely ill, which means that they may require hospitalization, intensive care, or a ventilator to help them breathe, or they may even die. We learn more about COVID-19 every day, and as more information becomes available, CDC will continue to update and share information about risk for severe illness.
People at increased risk for severe illness:

  • Older Adults
  • People with Underlying Medical Conditions 

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/people-at-increased-risk.html

  

Personal and Social Activities

CDC updated guidance regarding personal and social activities. What you need to know:

  • Stay home if sick.
  • Wear masks in public settings and when around people who don’t live in your household, especially when other social distancing measures are difficult to maintain.
  • Use social distancing (stay at least 6 feet away from others).
  • Before you go, call and ask what extra prevention strategies they are using, like requiring staff to wear masks.
  • Wash your hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds when you get home.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/daily-life-coping/personal-social-activities.html

  

Deciding to Go Out

CDC updated guidance regarding deciding to go out. What you need to know:

  • In general, the more closely you interact with others and the longer that interaction, the higher the risk of COVID-19 spread.
  • If you decide to engage in public activities, continue to protect yourself by practicing everyday preventive actions.
  • Keep these items on hand when venturing out: a mask, tissues, and a hand sanitizer with at least 60% alcohol, if possible.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/daily-life-coping/deciding-to-go-out.html

  

Doctor Visits and Getting Medicines

CDC updated guidance regarding doctor visits and getting medicines.

Talk to your doctor online, by phone, or e-mail:

  • Use telemedicine, if available, or communicate with your doctor or nurse by phone or e-mail.
  • Talk to your doctor about rescheduling procedures that are not urgently needed.

If you must visit in-person, protect yourself and others:

  • If you think you have COVID-19, notify the doctor or healthcare provider before your visit and follow their instructions.
  • Cover your mouth and nose with a mask when you have to go out in public.
  • Do not touch your eyes, nose, or mouth.
  • Stay at least 6 feet away from others while inside and in lines.
  • When paying, use touchless payment methods if possible. If you cannot use touchless payment, sanitize your hands after paying with card, cash, or check. Wash your hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds when you get home.

Limit in-person visits to the pharmacy:

  • Plan to order and pick up all your prescriptions at the same time.
  • If possible, call prescription orders in ahead of time. Use drive-thru windows, curbside services (wait in your car until the prescription is ready), mail-order, or other delivery services. Do the same for pet medicine.
  • Check with your doctor and pharmacist to see if you can get a larger supply of your medicines so you do not have to visit the pharmacy as often.

If you need family planning services:

  • Continue to seek care from your regular health care provider, or
  • Find a family planning provider using the Office of Population Affairs’ Find a Family Planning Clinic Tool

Health care providers may be providing services in person, by telephone, or by video. Contact your health care provider any time you have questions or concerns about your contraceptive method or family planning services.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/daily-life-coping/doctor-visits-medicine.html

  

COVID-19 Employer Information for Office Buildings

CDC updated guidance regarding employer information for office buildings. During the COVID-19 pandemic, office building employers, owners and managers, and operations specialists can take the following steps to create a safe and healthy workplace for workers and clients.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/office-buildings.html

  

Help Stop the Spread of COVID-19 in Children

CDC released guidance regarding tips to protect children during a COVID-19 outbreak. Based on available evidence, children do not appear to be at higher risk for COVID-19 than adults. While some children and infants have been sick with COVID-19, adults make up most of the known cases to date.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/daily-life-coping/children/protect-children.html

  

Living in Shared Housing

CDC updated guidance regarding living in shared housing. Shared or congregate housing includes apartments, condominiums, student or faculty housing, national and state park staff housing, transitional housing, and domestic violence and abuse shelters. Shared housing residents often gather together closely for social, leisure, and recreational activities, shared dining, laundry facilities, stairwells, and elevators and may have challenges with social distancing to prevent the spread of COVID-19.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/daily-life-coping/shared-housing/index.html

  

Households Living in Close Quarters

CDC released guidance regarding how to protect those that are most vulnerable. This guidance is intended for people living together in close quarters, such as people who share a small apartment, or for people who live in the same household with large or extended families. People of any age who have certain underlying medical conditions are at risk for getting COVID-19. Some groups have an increased risk for severe illness from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The following information is aimed to help you protect those who are most vulnerable in your household.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/daily-life-coping/living-in-close-quarters.html

  

Implementing Safety Practices for Critical Infrastructure Workers Who May Have Had Exposure to a Person with Suspected or Confirmed COVID-19

To ensure continuity of operations of essential functions, CDC advises that critical infrastructure workers may be permitted to continue work following potential exposure to COVID-19, provided they remain asymptomatic and additional precautions are implemented to protect them and the community. A potential exposure means being a household contact or having close contact within 6 feet of an individual with confirmed or suspected COVID-19. The timeframe for having contact with an individual includes the period of time of 48 hours before the individual became symptomatic. Critical Infrastructure workers who have had an exposure but remain asymptomatic should adhere to the following practices prior to and during their work shift.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/critical-workers/implementing-safety-practices.html

  

People with Disabilities

CDC updated guidance regarding people with disabilities. COVID-19 is a new disease and we are still learning how it spreads, the severity of illness it causes, and to what extent it may spread in the United States. Disability alone may not be related to higher risk for getting COVID-19 or having severe illness. Most people with disabilities are not inherently at higher risk for becoming infected with or having severe illness from COVID-19. However, some people with disabilities might be at a higher risk of infection or severe illness because of their underlying medical conditions. All people seem to be at higher risk of severe illness from COVID-19 if they have serious underlying chronic medical conditions like chronic lung disease, a serious heart condition, or a weakened immune system. Adults with disabilities are three times more likely than adults without disabilities to have heart disease, stroke, diabetes, or cancer than adults without disabilities. You should talk with your healthcare provider if you have a question about your health or how your health condition is being managed.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/people-with-disabilities.html

  

Keep Children Healthy during the COVID-19 Outbreak

CDC released guidance regarding keeping children healthy during the COVID-19 outbreak. Based on available evidence, most children do not appear to be at higher risk for COVID-19 than adults. While some children and infants have been sick with COVID-19, adults make up most of the known cases to date.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/daily-life-coping/children.html

What to Do if Your Pet Tests Positive for the Virus that Causes COVID-19

CDC updated guidance regarding what to do if pets test positive for the virus that causes COVID-19. What you need to know:

  • If your pet tests positive for the virus that causes COVID-19, isolate the pet from everyone else, including other pets.
  • Do not wipe or bathe your pet with chemical disinfectants, alcohol, hydrogen peroxide, or other products, such as hand sanitizer, counter-cleaning wipes, or other industrial or surface cleaners.
  • Only a few pets have been confirmed to be infected with the virus that causes COVID-19. Some pets did not show any signs of illness, but those pets that did get sick all had mild disease that could be taken care of at home. None have died from the infection.
  • If you think your pet has COVID-19, call a veterinarian first to discuss what you should do.
  • Pets with confirmed infection with the virus that causes COVID-19 should be restricted to isolation in the home until a veterinarian or public health official has determined that they can be around other pets and people.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/daily-life-coping/positive-pet.html

  

Interim Clinical Guidance for Management of Patients with Confirmed Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19)

CDC made revisions on September 10, 2020, to reflect the following:

Reinfection

There are limited data about reinfection with SARS-CoV-2 after recovery from COVID-19. While viral RNA shedding declines with resolution of symptoms, it may continue for days to weeks. However, the detection of RNA during convalescence does not necessarily indicate the presence of viable infectious virus. Clinical infection has been correlated with the detection of IgM and IgG antibodies. However, definitive data are lacking, and it remains uncertain whether individuals with antibodies are protected against reinfection with SARS-CoV-2, and if so, what concentration of antibodies is needed to confer protection.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/clinical-guidance-management-patients.html

  

Cleaning and Disinfection for Community Facilities

Interim Recommendations for US Community Facilities with Suspected/Confirmed Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)

CDC updated guidance to provide recommendations on the cleaning and disinfection of rooms or areas occupied by those with suspected or with confirmed COVID-19. It is aimed at limiting the survival of SARS-CoV-2 in key environments. These recommendations will be updated if additional information becomes available.

These guidelines are focused on community, non-healthcare facilities such as schools, institutions of higher education, offices, daycare centers, businesses, and community centers that do, and do not, house persons overnight. These guidelines are not meant for cleaning staff in healthcare facilities or repatriation sites, households, or for others for whom specific guidance already exists.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/organizations/cleaning-disinfection.html

  

Pregnancy, Breastfeeding, and Caring for Newborns

Based on what CDC knows at this time, pregnant people might be at an increased risk for severe illness from COVID-19 compared to non-pregnant people. Additionally, pregnant people with COVID-19 may be at increased risk for other adverse outcomes, such as preterm birth.

There is no way to ensure you have zero risk of infection, so it is important to understand the risks and know how to be as safe as possible. In general, the more people you interact with, the more closely you interact with them, and the longer that interaction, the higher your risk of getting and spreading COVID-19. Here are preventive steps you and people you live with can take:

  • Limit close contact interactions with other people as much as possible.
  • When going out or interacting with others outside your immediate household,
    • Wear a mask, especially when other social distancing measures are difficult to maintain. Note that wearing a mask is not a substitute for other everyday prevention actions like washing hands frequently and avoiding close contact with other people.
    • Avoid others who are not wearing masks or ask others around you to wear a mask, if possible.
    • Stay at least 6 feet away from others outside your household.
    • Wash your hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds. If soap and water are not available, use a hand sanitizer with at least 60% alcohol.
  • Avoid activities where taking protective measures may be difficult and where social distancing can’t be maintained.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/pregnancy-breastfeeding.html

If You Have Pets

CDC updated guidance regarding COVID-19 and pets. What you need to know:

  • A small number of pets worldwide, including cats and dogs, have been reported to be infected with the virus that causes COVID-19, mostly after close contact with people with COVID-19.
  • Based on the limited information available to date, the risk of animals spreading COVID-19 to people is considered to be low.
  • It appears that the virus that causes COVID-19 can spread from people to animals in some situations.
  • Treat pets as you would other human family members – do not let pets interact with people outside the household.
  • If a person inside the household becomes sick, isolate that person from everyone else, including pets.
  • This is a rapidly evolving situation and information will be updated as it becomes available.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/daily-life-coping/pets.html

  

Markets: Operational Considerations for COVID-19 Mitigation Measures in Global Low-Resource Settings

Markets are a critical place of commerce and a source of many essential goods, but they can pose potential risks for COVID-19. This document provides suggestions for mitigating COVID-19 transmission in markets in global low-resource settings and describes considerations associated with each mitigation measure. The proposals are presented in table format and are organized by mitigation practice (physical distancing, hand hygiene, cleaning and disinfection, and respiratory hygiene).

This document is intended for use by any person, institution, or organization preparing for or responding to cases of COVID-19 in the community, and for those assisting those organizations (federal and local governments, CDC country offices, and others).

This document provides suggestions that can be considered by personnel in low-resource settings outside the U.S. and can be adapted to follow national or local guidelines, and to account for local context. Local populations can be engaged in the planning and decision-making process by identifying trusted stakeholders and community leaders to provide feedback on proposed mitigation measures before their implementation.

Mitigation measures in markets can be organized into three categories: personal controls, administrative controls, and engineering controls. These should be layered on top of each other to reduce overall risk of COVID-19 for customers and vendors in markets.

  • Personal controls: Individual behaviors to protect themselves and those around them
  • Administrative controls: Processes and policies that keep people safe
  • Engineering controls: Physical structures put in place to distance people from hazards

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/global-covid-19/markets.html

  

Make a Handwashing Solution For Use in Global, Low-Resource Settings

CDC updated guidance regarding how to make a handwashing solution including a new graphic image. Remember, only use chlorine-based hand washing solutions when soap and water or alcohol-based hand rub are not available.

Making handwashing solution from 5% liquid bleach

Use the MILD chlorine water to wash hands. Make new mild chlorine water every day.

  1. Mix 14 tablespoons of 5% bleach into 20 liters of clear water every day. Stir well. Label plastic bucket for handwashing only / MILD 0.05%. Do not drink or use for cooking.
  2. Make sure the bucket is covered. Use the MILD chlorine water to wash hands.

Making handwashing solution from HTH chlorine powder

Use the MILD chlorine water to wash hands. Make new mild chlorine water every day.

  1. Mix 1 tablespoon of HTH chlorine powder into 20 liters of water every day. Stir well. Label plastic bucket for handwashing only / MILD 0.05%. Do not drink or use for cooking.
  2. Stir well and wait 30 minutes.
  3. Use the MILD chlorine water to wash hands.

Note:

  • Do NOT drink chlorine water.
  • Do NOT put chlorine water in mouth or eyes.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/global-covid-19/make-handwashing-solution.html

Contact Tracing

CDC provided guidance regarding contact tracing for COVID-19. Contact tracing is key to slowing the spread of COVID-19 and helps protect you, your family, and your community by:

  • Letting people know they may have been exposed to COVID-19 and should monitor their health for signs and symptoms of COVID-19.
  • Helping people who may have been exposed to COVID-19 get tested.
  • Asking people to self-isolate if they have COVID-19 or self-quarantine if they are a close contact.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/daily-life-coping/contact-tracing.html

  

Contact Tracing and Case Investigation Training Modules

The trainings listed below are for public health professionals or the general public who are interested in becoming a contact tracer or case investigator, as well as for public health professionals who already serve in these roles and are seeking to improve their knowledge.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/contact-tracing/general-training-modules.html

  

What Hotel, Resort, and Lodge Employers and Workers Need to Know About COVID-19

CDC provided COVID-19 guidance for hotel, resort, and lodge employers and workers.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/organizations/hotel-employers.html

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/organizations/hotel-employees.html

How to Make 0.1% Chlorine Solution to Disinfect Surfaces in Healthcare Settings

CDC provided guidance to use 0.1% (1,000ppm) chlorine solution to disinfect frequently touched surfaces and items. Make new 0.1% chlorine solution every day. Throw away any leftover solution from the day before.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/global-covid-19/make-chlorine-solution.html

  

Limiting Workplace Violence Associated with COVID-19 Prevention Policies in Retail and Services Businesses

Who this is for: This information is intended for use by employers and employees in retail, services, and other customer-based businesses. Retail or service businesses sell goods and provide services to the public and include department stores, grocery stores, gas stations, and restaurants. These businesses are open and have started state-directed, municipality-directed, and company-directed Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) prevention policies and practices to minimize the spread of the virus among employees and customers. This information is not intended to address every business setting. A business may need to adapt these strategies based on its physical space, staffing, and other factors.

Purpose: This webpage offers strategies to limit violence towards workers that may occur when businesses put in place policies and practices to help minimize the spread of COVID-19 among employees and customers. These policies may include requiring masks to be worn by employees and customers, asking customers to follow social distancing rules, and setting limits on the number of customers allowed in a business facility at one time.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/organizations/business-employers/limit-workplace-violence.html

  

COVID-19 Information Metrics for Response Leadership's Decision Making

Information sharing among international and national stakeholders during the ongoing COVID-19 response is critical for a coordinated response. Emergency Management Systems Integration (EMSI) is the process of bringing together the public health programs, emergency management systems, and best practices into one cohesive system to enhance the prevention, detection and response to public health events. EMSI supports the coordination of information flow and resource sharing among the disaster management authorities, multisectoral ministries and external partners responding to COVID-19. This involves integrating and streamlining existing — often disparate — public health systems in such a way that focuses on increasing the effectiveness of a public health preparedness and response program before, during, and after a public health event to ensure optimal response decision-making and strategy. This document aims to provide critical COVID-19 information metrics by technical area that response leaders in non-U.S. settings can request to aid in informing COVID-19 response decisions. This document includes a set of core metrics within 10 technical areas for response leaders to help monitor response progress and guide decision making. This list was drawn from World Health Organization (WHO) and U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) COVID-19 guidance documents with consultation from the CDC Operations and International Task Force subject matter experts in the corresponding technical areas.1-12 This document is not meant to be exhaustive but to identify those information metrics that are critical to inform response leadership. Countries’ response leadership may consider and request more metrics than what is listed in this document within their public health systems. Additionally, other metrics may be considered depending on a country’s specific transmission context (incidence, mortality, geographic spread, etc.).

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/global-covid-19/leadership-emergency-response.html

COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET)

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET) is a population-based surveillance system that collects data on laboratory-confirmed COVID-19-associated hospitalizations among children and adults through a network of over 250 acute-care hospitals in 14 states. COVID-NET is CDC’s source for important data on hospitalization rates associated with COVID-19. Hospitalization rates are updated weekly. COVID-NET also provides important clinical information on COVID-19-associated hospitalizations, including age group, sex, race/ethnicity and underlying health conditions. Cases are identified in COVID-NET if they test positive for SARS-COV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19 disease) through a test ordered by a health care professional and are hospitalized within 14 days of the positive test. Clinical data are collected using a standardized case reporting form by trained surveillance officers, so the data are collected in a standardized and uniform way.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/covid-data/covid-net/purpose-methods.html

  

Guidance for Dental Settings

Interim Infection Prevention and Control Guidance for Dental Settings During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic.

Key Points:

  • Recognize dental settings have unique characteristics that warrant specific infection control considerations.
  • Prioritize the most critical dental services and provide care in a way that minimizes harm to patients from delaying care and harm to personnel and patients from potential exposure to SARS-CoV-2 infection.
  • Proactively communicate to both personnel and patients the need for them to stay at home if sick.
  • Know the steps to take if a patient with COVID-19 symptoms enters your facility.

Summary of Recent Changes:

  • Guidance has been rearranged for clarity.
  • Updated the definition of fever to either measured temperature ≥100.0°F or subjective fever to align with CDC’s Interim Infection Prevention and Control Recommendations for Healthcare Personnel During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic.
  • In areas with moderate to substantial community transmission, during patient encounters with patients not suspected of SARS-CoV-2 infection, CDC recommends that dental healthcare personnel (DHCP):
    • Wear eye protection in addition to their facemask to ensure the eyes, nose, and mouth are all protected from exposure to respiratory secretions during patient care encounters, including those where splashes and sprays are not anticipated.
    • Use an N95 respirator or a respirator that offers an equivalent or higher level of protection during aerosol generating procedures
  • Added language that protective eyewear (e.g., safety glasses, trauma glasses) with gaps between glasses and the face likely do not protect eyes from all splashes and sprays.
  • Included additional guidance on physical distancing and how to respond to SARS-CoV-2 exposures among DHCP and others.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/dental-settings.html

  

eCR Now: COVID-19 Electronic Case Reporting

Electronic Case Reporting (eCR) is the automated generation and transmission of case reports from the electronic health record (EHR) to public health agencies for review and action. eCR makes disease reporting from healthcare to public health faster and easier. eCR Now is a strategic initiative that allows for rapid adoption and implementation of eCR for COVID-19. It improves COVID-19 reporting immediately, allows expansion to all reportable conditions, and features three components that make it easy to implement:

  1. Rapid eCR implementation through small cohort groups for provider sites that use an electronic health record (EHR) with eCR capabilities
  2. eCR Now Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) app that non-eCR enabled EHRs can rapidly implement to automate eCR for COVID-19
  3. Extension of the existing eHealth Exchange policy framework through an approved Carequality eCR implementation guide

eCR’s Value:

  • Enables bi-directional data exchange between healthcare providers and public health
  • Provides immediate feedback from public health to healthcare about reportable conditions and possible outbreaks
  • Reduces burden of manual reporting on healthcare facilities and providers and entry of information on public health agencies
  • Improves completeness of reporting, including demographics that allows for expedited case investigation and contact tracing

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/electronic-case-reporting.html

How to Select, Wear, and Clean Your Mask

CDC recommends that you wear masks in public settings around people who don’t live in your household and when you can’t stay 6 feet away from others. Masks help stop the spread of COVID-19 to others.

Overview:

  • Wear masks with two or more layers to stop the spread of COVID-19
  • Wear the mask over your nose and mouth and secure it under your chin
  • Masks should be worn by people two years and older
  • Masks should NOT be worn by children younger than two, people who have trouble breathing, or people who cannot remove the mask without assistance
  • Do NOT wear masks intended for healthcare workers, for example, N95 respirators

Topics include:

  • How to select masks
  • How to wear masks
  • Washing masks
  • Making masks
  • Considerations for wearing masks

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/about-face-coverings.html

  

People with Moderate to Severe Asthma

CDC updated guidance regarding COVID-19 and people with moderate to severe asthma. People with moderate to severe asthma may be at higher risk of getting very sick from COVID-19. COVID-19 can affect your nose, throat, lungs (respiratory tract); cause an asthma attack; and possibly lead to pneumonia and acute respiratory disease.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/asthma.html

  

Interim Operational Considerations for Public Health Management of Healthcare Workers Exposed to or with Suspected or Confirmed COVID-19: non-U.S. Healthcare Settings

While new discoveries continue to be made about COVID-19, early reports indicate that person-to-person transmission most often occurs during close contact with an individual infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are not only at higher risk of infection but can also amplify outbreaks within healthcare facilities if they become ill. Identifying and managing HCWs who have been exposed to a patient with COVID-19 is of great importance in preventing healthcare transmission and protecting staff and vulnerable patients in healthcare settings.

These operational considerations are intended to be used by healthcare facilities and public health authorities in non-U.S. healthcare settings, particularly focusing on low- and middle-income countries, assisting with the management of HCWs exposed to a person with suspected or confirmed COVID-19. This includes but is not limited to:

  • Healthcare facility leadership
  • Infection prevention and control (IPC) staff
  • Occupational health and worker safety staff
  • Public health staff at the national and sub-national level

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/non-us-settings/public-health-management-hcw-exposed.html

How CDC Determines the Risk Level for COVID-19 Travel Health Notices

CDC uses Travel Health Notices (THNs) to tell travelers and other audiences about health threats around the world. On March 27, 2020, CDC posted a Level 3 Global COVID-19 Pandemic Notice. That notice advised travelers from the United States to avoid all nonessential travel to foreign countries and US Territories around the world. On August 6, 2020, CDC replaced the global travel notice with destination-specific COVID-19 THNs.

CDC also uses an interactive world map (COVID-19 Travel Recommendations by Destination) to share COVID-19 travel recommendations. On this map, foreign countries and US Territories are shown as Level 3 (high risk), Level 2 (moderate risk), Level 1 (low risk), or no THN (very low risk). The map also identifies destinations where we cannot make a risk determination (no data available).

CDC bases COVID-19 risk levels for foreign countries and US Territories on two sets of data (primary and secondary criteria):

  • Virus transmission rates at the destination (primary criteria)
  • AND
  • Healthcare capacity and public health infrastructure at the destination (secondary criteria)

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/travelers/how-level-is-determined.html

  

COVID-19 Employer Information for Utility Workers

CDC updated guidance regarding employer information for utility workers. As an employer of utility workers, your workforce might be exposed to the virus when:

  • In close contact (within less than 6 feet) with other people at the worksite, which can include customers, coworkers, contractors, and visitors.
  • Touching or handling frequently touched surfaces and equipment, and then touching their face, mouth, nose, or eyes.
  • Entering an environment with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 cases.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/organizations/utility-employers.html

  

Operational Considerations for Schools

CDC updated guidance regarding operational considerations for schools. Schools play an important role in educating students about disease prevention within their homes and communities. Additionally, many children and adolescents rely on key services provided by schools, such as school meal programs, psychosocial support, disability services, and outreach for vulnerable populations. Schools are considered safe havens for children who might be experiencing various forms of abuse or violence. This document provides suggestions for mitigating risks for COVID-19 transmission in schools in low-resource, international settings and describes considerations associated with each mitigation measure, including considerations for secondary impacts such as food insecurity and exposure to violence and for students who are at high-risk for dropping out of school, so that schools may safely resume and sustain operations. The proposals are presented in table format and are organized by mitigation practice (physical distancing, hand hygiene, cleaning and disinfection, and respiratory hygiene). This document does not supersede any national or local government laws, regulations, or mandates; rather, it is intended to complement existing or proposed mitigation measures.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/global-covid-19/schools.html

  

After You Travel

CDC updated guidance regarding after traveling. There is ongoing transmission of novel coronavirus within the United States and in destinations throughout the world. You may have been exposed to COVID-19 on your travels (domestic and/or international). You may feel well and not have any symptoms, but you can be contagious without symptoms and spread the virus to others. You and your travel companions (including children) pose a risk to your family, friends, and community for 14 days after you were exposed to the virus. Regardless of where you traveled or what you did during your trip, take these actions to protect others from getting sick:

  • When around others, stay at least 6 feet (about 2 arms’ length) from other people who are not from your household. It is important to do this everywhere, both indoors and outdoors.
  • Wear a mask to keep your nose and mouth covered when you are outside of your home.
  • Wash your hands often or use hand sanitizer.
  • Watch your health and look for symptoms of COVID-19. Take your temperature if you feel sick.

Follow state, territorial, tribal and local recommendations or requirements after travel.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/travelers/after-travel-precautions.html

  

COVID-19 Employer Information for Warehousing

CDC updated guidance regarding employer information for warehousing. As a warehousing employer, your workforce might come into contact with the virus when:

  • In close contact (within about 6 feet) with other people at the worksite, which can include customers, coworkers, contractors, and truck drivers.
  • Touching or handling frequently touched surfaces and equipment, and then touching their face, mouth, nose, or eyes.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/organizations/warehousing-employers.html

  

Travel During the COVID-19 Pandemic

CDC updated guidance regarding travel during the COVID-19 pandemic. Travel increases your chance of getting and spreading COVID-19. Staying home is the best way to protect yourself and others from COVID-19. You can get COVID-19 during your travels. You may feel well and not have any symptoms, but you can still spread COVID-19 to others. You and your travel companions (including children) may spread COVID-19 to other people including your family, friends, and community for 14 days after you were exposed to the virus. Don’t travel if you are sick or if you have been around someone with COVID-19 in the past 14 days. Don’t travel with someone who is sick.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/travelers/travel-during-covid19.html

COVID-19 and Animals

CDC updated guidance regarding COVID-19 and animals. What you need to know:

  • We do not know the exact source of the current outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but we know that it originally came from an animal, likely a bat.
  • At this time, there is no evidence that animals play a significant role in spreading the virus that causes COVID-19.
  • Based on the limited information available to date, the risk of animals spreading COVID-19 to people is considered to be low.
  • More studies are needed to understand if and how different animals could be affected by COVID-19.
  • We are still learning about this virus, but it appears that it can spread from people to animals in some situations.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/daily-life-coping/animals.html

  

COVID-19 Contact Tracing Training

CDC provided contact tracing training for both public health professionals and state and local public health jurisdictions.

Contact Tracing Training Modules: These trainings are for public health professionals who are interested in becoming a COVID-19 contact tracer or case investigator, as well as for public health professionals who already serve in these roles and are seeking to improve their knowledge.

Sample Training Plans: These sample training plans include training topics that may be helpful for state and local public health jurisdictions to consider when designing their own training plans for COVID-19 contact tracers, case investigators, and team leads. Suggested training modalities/formats are provided, as well as information about sample existing trainings and resources.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/contact-tracing/index.html

  

Limiting Workplace Violence Associated with COVID-19 Prevention Policies in Retail and Services Businesses

CDC updated guidance on prevention policies in retail and services businesses related to limiting workplace violence associated with COVID-19.

Who this is for: This information is intended for use by employers and employees in retail, services, and other customer-based businesses. Retail or service businesses sell goods and provide services to the public and include department stores, grocery stores, gas stations, and restaurants. These businesses are open and have started state-directed, municipality-directed, and company-directed Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) prevention policies and practices to minimize the spread of the virus among employees and customers. This information is not intended to address every business setting. A business may need to adapt these strategies based on its physical space, staffing, and other factors.

Purpose: This webpage offers strategies to limit violence towards workers that may occur when businesses put in place policies and practices to help minimize the spread of COVID-19 among employees and customers. These policies may include requiring masks to be worn by employees and customers, asking customers to follow social distancing rules, and setting limits on the number of customers allowed in a business facility at one time.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/organizations/business-employers/limit-workplace-violence.html

  

Preparing K-12 School Administrators for a Safe Return to School in Fall 2020

CDC updated guidance regarding a safe return to schools. Schools are an important part of the infrastructure of communities and play a critical role in supporting the whole child, not just their academic achievement. This guidance is intended to aid school administrators as they consider how to protect the health, safety, and wellbeing of students, teachers, other school staff, their families, and communities and prepare for educating students this fall. This guidance is for K-12 school administrators who are preparing for students, teachers, and staff to return to school in fall 2020. School administrators are individuals who oversee the daily operations of K-12 schools, and may include school district superintendents, school principals, and assistant principals. It is critical that all administrators:

  • Engage and encourage everyone in the school and the community to practice preventive behaviors. These are the most important actions that will support schools’ safe reopening and will help them stay open.
  • Implement multiple SARS-CoV-2 mitigation strategies (e.g., social distancing, cloth face coverings, hand hygiene, and use of cohorting).
  • Communicate, educate, and reinforce appropriate hygiene and social distancing practices in ways that are developmentally appropriate for students, teachers, and staff.
  • Integrate SARS-CoV-2 mitigation strategies into co-curricular and extracurricular activities (e.g., limiting or cancelling participation in activities where social distancing is not feasible).
  • Maintain healthy environments (e.g., cleaning and disinfecting frequently touched surfaces).
  • Make decisions that take into account the level of community transmission.
  • Repurpose unused or underutilized school (or community) spaces to increase classroom space and facilitate social distancing, including outside spaces, where feasible.
  • Develop a proactive plan for when a student or staff member tests positive for COVID-19.
  • Develop a plan with state and local health department to conduct case tracing in the event of a positive case.
  • Educate parents and caregivers on the importance of monitoring for and responding to the symptoms of COVID-19 at home.
  • Develop ongoing channels of communication with state and local health departments to stay updated on COVID-19 transmission and response in your local area.

The guidance described in this document is based on the best available evidence at this time. This guidance is meant to supplement—not replace—any state, local, territorial, or tribal health and safety laws, rules, and regulations with which schools must comply.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/schools-childcare/prepare-safe-return.html

Food and Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)

CDC released guidance regarding food and COVID-19. The risk of getting sick with COVID-19 from eating or handling food (including frozen food and produce) and food packages is considered very low. Take everyday actions to prevent the spread of COVID-19. Continue following basic steps for food safety and eat nutritious foods to take care of your physical and mental health. Currently, there is no evidence to suggest that handling food or consuming food is associated with COVID-19. Coronaviruses, like the one that causes COVID-19, are thought to spread mostly person-to-person through respiratory droplets when someone coughs, sneezes, or talks. It is possible that a person can get COVID-19 by touching a surface or object, including food or food packaging, that has the virus on it and then touching their own mouth, nose, or possibly their eyes. However, this is not thought to be the main way the virus spreads. After shopping, handling food packages, or before preparing or eating food, it is important to always wash your hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds. If soap and water are not available, use a hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol. Cover all surfaces of your hands and rub them together until they feel dry. Remember, it is always important to follow good food safety practices to reduce the risk of illness from common foodborne pathogens.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/daily-life-coping/food-and-COVID-19.html

  

Test for Current Infection

Protect yourself and others. Wear a mask, wash hands often, stay 6 ft from others.

Considerations for who should get tested:

  • People who have symptoms of COVID-19
  • People who have had close contact (within 6 feet of an infected person for at least 15 minutes) with someone with confirmed COVID-19
  • People who have been asked or referred to get testing by their healthcare provider, local or state health department

Not everyone needs to be tested. If you do get tested, you should self-quarantine/isolate at home pending test results and follow the advice of your health care provider or a public health professional.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/testing/diagnostic-testing.html

  

Overview of Testing for SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19)

CDC made the following revisions on August 24, 2020:

  • Diagnostic testing categories have been edited to focus on testing considerations and actions to be taken by individuals undergoing testing

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/testing-overview.html

Operating Schools During COVID-19: CDC's Considerations

CDC updated guidance regarding school operations. Here is the summary of changes to the considerations:

Updates have been made to align with the new school resources and tools that were released on July 23rd and 24th and the latest COVID-19 information. The Considerations are intended to help school administrators: (1) promote behaviors that reduce the spread of COVID-19, (2) maintain healthy environments, (3) maintain healthy operations, and (4) prepare for when someone gets sick.

Below are changes to the considerations as of August 21, 2020:

  • Expanded considerations on planning and preparing schools before opening
  • Updated considerations on ventilation
  • Updated considerations on food service
  • Updated considerations for students who may be unable to wear cloth face coverings
  • Updated considerations for students with special healthcare needs and disabilities
  • Updated considerations on cohorting, staggering, and alternating strategies
  • Updated considerations on recognizing signs and symptoms of COVID-19 and screening
  • Updated considerations on coping and support
  • Updated considerations on making plans for accommodations
  • Updated considerations for Direct Service Providers (DSPs)

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/schools-childcare/schools.html

  

Strategies for Protecting K-12 School Staff from COVID-19

The information on this page provides an expanded focus on the health and safety of K-12 school staff. The strategies also provide workplace safety and health information for administrators related to protecting teachers, substitute teachers, paraprofessionals, janitorial/maintenance staff, office staff, school nutrition staff, school nurses/health professionals, school bus drivers, bus aides, coaching staff and athletic trainers, and music, choir, and performing arts teachers. This list is not exhaustive and addresses only some of the many jobs in schools. These strategies are meant to supplement—not replace—Operating schools during COVID-19: CDC’s Considerations, and any federal, state, local, territorial, or tribal health and safety laws, rules, and regulations with which schools must comply. These strategies apply whether staff and students have returned to in-person learning, staff is assigned to work in school buildings to support virtual learning, or the school implements hybrid models (combined in-person and virtual instruction). Certain aspects of these strategies apply to non-school buildings operated by K-12 school systems (e.g., office workers in district administration buildings, transportation hubs, and maintenance shops). Specifically, this page provides information about:

  • What is currently known about COVID-19 transmission in schools and the exposure risk among K-12 school staff
  • Preventing and reducing the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19 among school staff, which will also prevent transmission among students and the wider community
  • Maintaining healthy school operations
  • Maintaining a healthy school/work environment
  • Special considerations for certain occupations within school environments

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/schools-childcare/k-12-staff.html

  

Contact Tracing Resources

Resources for conducting contact tracing to stop the spread of COVID-19:

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/open-america/contact-tracing-resources.html
https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/contact-tracing-faq.html (for health departments)

  

Air Travel Toolkit for Airline Partners

CDC created a communication toolkit for airline partners to help them reach their travelers and employees with COVID-19 prevention messaging. This toolkit provides messages, graphics and products to:

  • Support timely messaging to travelers and employees
  • Share CDC resources with airline partners
  • Help airline partners develop additional COVID-19 materials

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/travelers/airline-toolkit.html

COVID-19 Contact Tracing Communications Toolkit for Health Departments

CDC released interim guidance regarding contact tracing. We all need to work together to help slow the spread of COVID-19. Contact tracing slows the spread of COVID-19 by:

  • Letting people know they may have been exposed to COVID-19 and should monitor their health for signs and symptoms of COVID-19.
  • Helping people who may have been exposed to COVID-19 get tested.
  • Asking people to self-isolate if they have COVID-19 or self-quarantine if they are a close contact of someone who has COVID‑19.

The messages in this toolkit use COVID-19, but you may want to use “coronavirus” instead of COVID-19 if that’s the term most often used in your community. The bottom line: Making a choice to help your health department in the fight against COVID-19 helps protect you, your family, and your community.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/contact-tracing-comms.html

COVID-19 Employer Information for Rail Transit Operators

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory illness caused by a virus called SARS-CoV-2. Here’s what we currently know:

  • The main way the virus spreads is from person to person through respiratory droplets when people cough, sneeze or talk.
  • You may also be able to get COVID-19 by touching a surface or object that has the virus on it, and then touching your face, mouth, nose, or eyes.
  • The virus may be spread by people who do not have symptoms.

COVID-19 can sometimes cause serious health problems. People at increased risk for severe illness include:

  • Older adults
  • People of any age who have certain underlying medical conditions

As a rail transit operator employer, your workforce might come into contact with the virus when:

  • In close contact (within about 6 feet) with other people at the worksite, which can include passengers, coworkers, transit station, and maintenance workers.
  • Touching or handling high-contact surfaces and equipment, and then touching their face, mouth, nose, or eyes.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/organizations/rail-transit-operator.html

  

Monitoring and Evaluation Action Guide: Wearing Masks as a COVID-19 Community Mitigation Strategy

This action guide is developed to help evaluators, program implementers, and policy makers monitor and evaluate wearing masks as a community mitigation strategy. This is not meant for healthcare settings. This guide provides practical considerations and examples of evaluation questions, indicators, and data sources.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/mask-evaluation.html

  

Travel During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Travel increases your chance of getting and spreading COVID-19. Staying home is the best way to protect yourself and others from COVID-19. You can get COVID-19 during your travels. You may feel well and not have any symptoms, but you can still spread COVID-19 to others. You and your travel companions (including children) may spread COVID-19 to other people including your family, friends, and community for 14 days after you were exposed to the virus. Don’t travel if you are sick or if you have been around someone with COVID-19 in the past 14 days. Don’t travel with someone who is sick.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/travelers/travel-during-covid19.html

  

Travelers Prohibited from Entry to the United States

Several Presidential proclamations established restrictions on the entry of certain travelers into the United States in an effort to help slow the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/travelers/from-other-countries.html

COVID-19 Published Science and Research

CDC is responding to the COVID-19 pandemic by learning more about how the disease spreads and affects people and communities. CDC’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report publishes the results of COVID-19 outbreak investigations. CDC’s scientific journal Emerging Infectious Diseases has published dozens of studies by researchers studying COVID-19 since the pandemic began.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/more/science-and-research.html

  

Social Media Toolkit

CDC provides resources for social media including videos, messages, pictures, etc. These resources are all related to COVID-19 and include topics such as masks, social distancing, handwashing, what to do if you’re sick, stop the spread, contact tracing, etc.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/communication/social-media-toolkit.html

Updated Isolation Guidance Does Not Imply Immunity to COVID-19

On August 3, 2020, CDC updated its isolation guidance based on the latest science about COVID-19 showing that people can continue to test positive for up to 3 months after diagnosis and not be infectious to others. Contrary to media reporting, this science does not imply a person is immune to reinfection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, in the 3 months following infection. The latest data simply suggests that retesting someone in the 3 months following initial infection is not necessary unless that person is exhibiting the symptoms of COVID-19 and the symptoms cannot be associated with another illness. People with COVID-19 should be isolated for at least 10 days after symptom onset and until 24 hours after their fever subsides without the use of fever-reducing medications.

There have been more than 15 international and U.S.-based studies recently published looking at length of infection, duration of viral shed, asymptomatic spread and risk of spread among various patient groups. Researchers have found that the amount of live virus in the nose and throat drops significantly soon after COVID-19 symptoms develop. Additionally, the duration of infectiousness in most people with COVID-19 is no longer than 10 days after symptoms begin and no longer than 20 days in people with severe illness or those who are severely immunocompromised.

https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2020/s0814-updated-isolation-guidance.html

  

When You Can be Around Others After You Had or Likely Had COVID-19

CDC updated guidance of when you can be around others (end home isolation). This depends on different factors for different situations. Find CDC’s recommendations for different situations below.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/if-you-are-sick/end-home-isolation.html

  

Duration of Isolation and Precautions for Adults with COVID-19

Accumulating evidence supports ending isolation and precautions for persons with COVID-19 using a symptom-based strategy. This update incorporates recent evidence to inform the duration of isolation and precautions recommended to prevent transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to others, while limiting unnecessary prolonged isolation and unnecessary use of laboratory testing resources.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/duration-isolation.html

Hiring In-Home Services or Repairs

CDC offers tips for staying safe and slowing the spread of COVID-19 while scheduling services or repairs inside the home. This may include installation and repair of plumbing, electrical, heating, or air conditioning systems; painting; or cleaning services. In general, the closer and longer you interact with others, the higher the risk of COVID-19 spread. Limiting close face-to-face contact and staying at least 6 feet away from other people is the best way to reduce the risk of COVID-19 infection, along with wearing masks and practicing everyday preventive actions.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/daily-life-coping/at-home/in-home-services.html

When You Can be Around Others After You Had or Likely Had COVID-19

CDC updated guidance regarding if you have or think you might have COVID-19. CDC said that it is important to stay home and away from other people. Staying away from others helps stop the spread of COVID-19. If you have an emergency warning sign (including trouble breathing), get emergency medical care immediately. When you can be around others (end home isolation) depends on different factors for different situations. In addition, two videos were added: I Think or Know I had COVID-19, and I had Symptoms. When can I be Around Others? and I Had COVID-19, But No Symptoms. When Can I Be with Others?

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/if-you-are-sick/end-home-isolation.html

Playing Sports

CDC updated guidance on information for youth and adult athletes considering participating in a sports league or team. What you need to know:

  • Stay home if sick
  • Players should bring their own equipment, like gloves and bats, if possible
  • Reduce physical closeness and keep 6 feet of space between players when possible
  • Wear a mask if possible
  • Players should clean their hands before and after practices, games, and sharing equipment
  • Tell a coach or staff member if you don’t feel well

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/daily-life-coping/youth-sports.html

  

Cleaning, Disinfection, and Hand Hygiene in Schools

CDC updated guidance regarding reducing the risk of exposure to coronavirus (or SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19) by cleaning and disinfection as an integral part of reopening schools that will require careful planning. This guidance is intended to aid school administrators as they consider how to protect the health, safety, and wellbeing of students, teachers, other school staff, families, and communities and prepare for educating students this fall.

Cleaning and disinfecting your school will require you to:

  • Develop your plan
  • Implement your plan
  • Maintain and revise your plan

Recommendations are based on CDC’s current knowledge of COVID-19 in the United States. CDC will continue to monitor COVID-19 activity and update guidance as needed. This guidance is meant to supplement—not replace—any state, local, territorial, or tribal health and safety laws, rules, and regulations with which schools must comply.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/schools-childcare/clean-disinfect-hygiene.html

  

After You Travel

CDC updated guidance regarding returning from international travel. There is ongoing transmission of novel coronavirus within the United States and in destinations throughout the world. You may have been exposed to COVID-19 on your travels (domestic and/or international). You may feel well and not have any symptoms, but you can be contagious without symptoms and spread the virus to others. You and your travel companions (including children) pose a risk to your family, friends, and community for 14 days after you were exposed to the virus. Regardless of where you traveled or what you did during your trip, take these actions to protect others from getting sick:

  • When around others, stay at least 6 feet (about 2 arms’ length) from other people who are not from your household. It is important to do this everywhere, both indoors and outdoors.
  • Wear a mask to keep your nose and mouth covered when you are outside of your home.
  • Wash your hands often or use hand sanitizer.
  • Watch your health: Look for symptoms of COVID-19, and take your temperature if you feel sick.

Follow state, territorial, tribal and local recommendations or requirements after travel.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/travelers/after-travel-precautions.html

Travel During the COVID-19 Pandemic

CDC updated guidance surrounding travel during the COVID-19 pandemic. Travel increases your chance of getting and spreading COVID-19. Staying home is the best way to protect yourself and others from COVID-19. You can get COVID-19 during your travels. You may feel well and not have any symptoms, but you can still spread COVID-19 to others. You and your travel companions (including children) may spread COVID-19 to other people including your family, friends, and community for 14 days after you were exposed to the virus. Don’t travel if you are sick or if you have been around someone with COVID-19 in the past 14 days. Don’t travel with someone who is sick. Other topics include but are not limited to:

  • Before you travel
  • If you travel
  • Considerations for types of travel
  • Tips to avoid getting and spreading COVID-19 in common travel situations
  • After you travel
  • Higher risk activities

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/travelers/travel-during-covid19.html

  

How to Wear Masks

CDC recommends that people wear masks in public and when around people who don’t live in your household. Masks should NOT be worn by children under age 2 or anyone who has trouble breathing, is unconscious, incapacitated, or otherwise unable to remove the mask without assistance. CDC advises to NOT use a mask meant for a healthcare worker. Currently, surgical masks and N95 respirators are critical supplies that should be reserved for healthcare workers and other first responders. In addition, CDC includes other topics such as:

  • Wear your mask correctly
  • Wear a mask to protect others
  • Follow everyday health habits
  • Take off your mask carefully, when you’re home

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/how-to-wear-cloth-face-coverings.html

Guidance for Dental Settings

CDC provided guidance regarding interim infection prevention and control guidance for dental settings during the COVID-19 pandemic. Summary of recent changes include:

  • Guidance has been rearranged for clarity.
  • Updated the definition of fever to either measured temperature ≥100.0°F or subjective fever to align with CDC’s Interim Infection Prevention and Control Recommendations for Patients with Suspected or Confirmed Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Healthcare Settings.
  • In areas with moderate to substantial community transmission, during patient encounters with patients not suspected of SARS-CoV-2 infection, CDC recommends that dental healthcare personnel (DHCP):
    • Wear eye protection in addition to their facemask to ensure the eyes, nose, and mouth are all protected from exposure to respiratory secretions during patient care encounters, including those where splashes and sprays are not anticipated.
    • Use an N95 respirator or a respirator that offers an equivalent or higher level of protection during aerosol generating procedures.
  • Added language that protective eyewear (e.g., safety glasses, trauma glasses) with gaps between glasses and the face likely do not protect eyes from all splashes and sprays.
  • Included additional guidance on physical distancing and how to respond to SARS-CoV-2 exposures among DHCP and others.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/dental-settings.html

Evaluation and Management Considerations for Neonates at Risk for COVID-19

CDC updated this guidance which is intended to inform healthcare providers in the United States about the diagnosis, evaluation, infection prevention and control practices, and disposition of neonates (≤28 days old) with suspected or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection or known SARS-CoV-2 exposure, including birth to a mother with suspected or confirmed COVID-19.

Updates as of August 3, 2020:

  • Updated guidance on mother-neonate contact, emphasizing the importance of maternal autonomy in the medical decision-making process.
  • Updated evidence about routes of SARS-CoV-2 transmission to neonates.
  • Updated guidance on infection prevention and control.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/caring-for-newborns.html

Preparing K-12 School Administrators for a Safe Return to School in Fall 2020

CDC released updated guidance intended to aid school administrators as they consider how to protect the health, safety, and wellbeing of students, teachers, other school staff, their families, and communities and prepare for educating students this fall. The guidance described in this document is based on the best available evidence at this time. This guidance is meant to supplement—not replace—any state, local, territorial, or tribal health and safety laws, rules, and regulations with which schools must comply.

Key considerations for school administrators:

  • COVID-19 transmission rates in the immediate community and in the communities in which students, teachers, and staff live
  • Approaches to cohorting that fit the needs of your school/district and community (e.g., keeping students in class pods, staggering when students return to school facility, having the same teacher stay with the same group of students)
  • Can unused or underutilized school spaces, including outdoor spaces, be repurposed to increase classroom space and facilitate social distancing?
  • Concurrently implementing multiple strategies in school to prevent the spread of COVID-19 (e.g., social distancing, cloth face coverings, hand hygiene, and use of cohorting)
  • Best practices for your school and community to communicate, educate, and reinforce personal protective behaviors to prevent the spread of COVID-19 in school and in the community
  • Integrating strategies to reduce COVID-19 transmission into co-curricular and extracurricular activities (e.g., limiting participation in activities where social distancing is not feasible)
  • Planning and preparing for when someone gets sick
  • Working with state and local health authorities to develop a plan to conduct contact tracing in the event of a positive case
  • Communicating appropriately to families about home-based symptom screening

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/schools-childcare/prepare-safe-return.html

Rural Communities

CDC updated guidance on rural communities. About 46 million Americans live in rural areas, which face distinctive challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic. Long-standing systemic health and social inequities have put some rural residents at increased risk of getting COVID-19 or having severe illness. In general, rural Americans tend to have higher rates of cigarette smoking, high blood pressure, and obesity as well as less access to healthcare which can negatively affect health outcomes. They are also less likely to have health insurance.

On this page:

  • How Rural Communities Can Respond During COVID-19
  • Why Rural Communities May Be at Higher Risk During the COVID-19 Pandemic

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/other-at-risk-populations/rural-communities.html

SARS-CoV-2 Sequencing for Public Health Emergency Response, Epidemiology, and Surveillance

CDC is leading the SARS-CoV-2 Sequencing for Public Health Emergency Response, Epidemiology and Surveillance (SPHERES), a new national genomics consortium to coordinate SARS-CoV-2 sequencing across the United States. Large-scale, rapid genomic sequencing of the virus that causes COVID-19 will allow public health experts to:

  • Monitor important changes in the virus as it continues to circulate
  • Gain important insights to support contact tracing
  • Provide crucial information to aid in identifying diagnostic and therapeutic targets
  • Advance public health research in the areas of transmission dynamics, host response, and evolution of the virus

With extensive participation from US clinical and public health laboratories, academic institutions, and the private sector, the SPHERES consortium aims to generate information about the virus that will strengthen COVID-19 mitigation strategies.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/covid-data/spheres.html

What Public Health Inspectors Need to Know About COVID-19

CDC offers guidance for health inspectors and what they need to know about COVID-19 including:

  • How COVID-19 spreads
  • How you can protect yourself and others
  • How to cope with stress
  • How your employer can protect you
  • How to get more Information

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/organizations/ph-inspectors-employees.html

  

Health Equity Considerations and Racial and Ethnic Minority Groups

CDC reports that there is increasing evidence that some racial and ethnic minority groups are being disproportionately affected by COVID-19. Inequities in the social determinants of health, such as poverty and healthcare access, affecting these groups are interrelated and influence a wide range of health and quality-of-life outcomes and risks. Topics on this page include:

  • Factors that contribute to increased risk
  • What We Can Do
  • Data on COVID-19 and Race and Ethnicity

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/health-equity/race-ethnicity.html

  

How to Report COVID-19 Laboratory Data

  • Who must report
  • How to report
  • What to report
  • What to include
  • Using standard terminology
  • Assistance with electronic reporting
  • FAQs

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/lab/reporting-lab-data.html

FAQ for School Administrators on Reopening Schools

CDC updated guidance to include FAQs based around planning and responding to COVID-19.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/schools-childcare/reopening-schools-faqs.html

  

Data on COVID-19 During Pregnancy

CDC updated guidance on how tracking data on COVID-19 during pregnancy can protect pregnant women and their babies. Latest guidance includes:

  • Evaluation and Management Considerations for Neonates at Risk for COVID-19
  • Considerations for Inpatient Obstetric Healthcare Settings
  • Care for Breastfeeding Women

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/cases-updates/special-populations/pregnancy-data-on-covid-19.html

  

Preparing a Safe Return to School

CDC updated guidance for K-12 school administrators who are preparing for students, teachers, and staff to return to school in fall 2020. This guidance is intended to aid school administrators as they consider how to protect the health, safety, and wellbeing of students, teachers, other school staff, their families, and communities and prepare for educating students this fall.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/schools-childcare/prepare-safe-return.html

  

Cloth Face Coverings in Schools

CDC suggests that all school reopening plans address adherence to behaviors that prevent the spread of COVID-19, including cloth face coverings. This document provides guidance to help school administrators decide how to best implement the wearing of cloth face coverings—in their school settings and facilities, including but not limited to buses and other shared transportation.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/schools-childcare/cloth-face-cover.html

  

Deciding How to Go Back to School

CDC provides a tool designed to help parents, caregivers, and guardians weigh the risks and benefits of available educational options to help them make decisions about sending their child back to school. It is organized to provide parents and caregivers with:

  • Information on COVID-19 and why safely reopening schools is so critical.
  • Tools to:
    • Help you assess your child’s and your family’s risk of COVID-19;
    • Consider factors that will help you make a choice, if offered, of instructional format (e.g. virtual, in person, or a hybrid option); and
    • Prepare for the school year, regardless of format.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/schools-childcare/decision-tool.html

  

Screening Students for Symptoms

CDC released this document providing guidance to K-12 schools on COVID-19 symptom screening as part of a school reopening process. The guidance detailed here is intended only for students in K-12 school settings.

Based on the best available evidence at this time:

  • CDC does not currently recommend universal symptom screenings (screening all students grades K-12) be conducted by schools.
  • Parents or caregivers should be strongly encouraged to monitor their children for signs of infectious illness every day.
  • Students who are sick should not attend school in-person.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/schools-childcare/symptom-screening.html

  

Checklists for Going Back to School

CDC offers these checklists intended to help parents, guardians, and caregivers, plan and prepare for the upcoming school year. Some of the changes in schools’ classroom attendance or structure may include:

  • Cohorts: Dividing students and teachers into distinct groups that stay together throughout an entire school day during in-person classroom instruction. Schools may allow minimal or no interaction between cohorts (also sometimes referred to as pods).
  • Hybrid: A mix of virtual learning and in-class learning. Hybrid options can apply a cohort approach to the in-class education provided.
  • Virtual/at-home only: Students and teachers engage in virtual-only classes, activities, and events.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/schools-childcare/parent-checklist.html

  

Considerations for Retirement Communities & Independent Living Facilities

CDC offers the following considerations for ways in which administrators of retirement communities and independent living facilities can help protect residents, workers, visitors, and communities and slow the spread of COVID-19. These considerations are for administrators of retirement communities and independent living facilities that are not healthcare facilities.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/retirement/considerations.html

  

Hiring In-Home Services or Repairs

CDC offers the following tips for staying safe and slowing the spread of COVID-19 while scheduling services or repairs inside the home. This may include installation and repair of plumbing, electrical, heating, or air conditioning systems; painting; or cleaning services.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/daily-life-coping/at-home/in-home-services.html

  

Supplemental Guidance for Child Care

Summary of recent changes:

  • Includes additional options for screening children upon arrival to ensure that children who have a fever or other signs of illness are not admitted to the facility.
  • The additional options may be useful when personal protective equipment (PPE) is in short supply.

These additional considerations are intended to provide guidance for a range of child care programs, including:

  • Family child care programs, also known as home-based child care
  • Pre-K (Pre-kindergarten) programs at private and public schools
  • Head Start and Early Head Start programs
  • Private child care centers
  • Temporary child care centers operated by municipalities for the children of essential service providers, such as first responders, healthcare workers, transit workers, and other industries where a parent cannot stay home
  • Child care centers that partner with healthcare facilities to support healthcare workers who need child care

This information is intended for child care programs that remain open and should be used in conjunction with CDC’s guidance for administrators of child care programs and K-12 schools. This guidance does not supersede applicable federal, state, and local laws and policies for child care programs.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/schools-childcare/guidance-for-childcare.html

  

Test for Current Infection

CDC updated guidance on testing for current infection. Viral tests check samples from your respiratory system, such as a swab from the inside of your nose, to see if you are currently infected with SARS-CoV-2. Results from point-of-care tests may be available at the testing site in less than an hour. Other viral tests must be sent to a laboratory for analysis, a process that can take a few days. Some jurisdictions are experiencing a high demand for testing, which may cause a delay in processing tests and providing results. Topics include:

  • How to get a viral test
  • What to do after a viral test

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/testing/diagnostic-testing.html

  

Interim Guidance for Use of Pooling Procedures in SARS-CoV-2 Diagnostic, Screening, and Surveillance Testing

CDC provides guidance on the appropriate use of testing, specifically, pooling. Pooling—sometimes referred to as pool testing, pooled testing, or batch testing—means combining respiratory samples from several people and conducting one laboratory test on the combined pool of samples to detect SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. More information regarding pooling is listed on the documents and includes:

  • What is pooling?
  • Why is pooling used?
  • What happens if the pooled test result is negative?
  • What happens if the pooled test result is positive?
  • When should pooling be used?

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/lab/pooling-procedures.html

  

The Importance of Reopening America’s Schools this Fall

As families and policymakers make decisions about their children returning to school, it is important to consider the full spectrum of benefits and risks of both in-person and virtual learning options. Aside from a child’s home, no other setting has more influence on a child’s health and well-being than their school. The in-person school environment does the following:

  • Provides educational instruction;
  • Supports the development of social and emotional skills;
  • Creates a safe environment for learning;
  • Addresses nutritional needs; and
  • Facilitates physical activity.

This paper discusses each of these critical functions, following a brief summary of current studies regarding COVID-19 and children.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/schools-childcare/reopening-schools.html

COVID-19 Serology Surveillance

CDC is working with state, local, territorial, academic, and commercial partners to better understand COVID-19 in the United States. Topics include:

  • About CDC Serology Surveillance
  • Serology Surveillance Surveys
  • Guidance on Serology (or Antibody) Testing
  • More Information

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/covid-data/serology.html

  

Stop the Spread in Children

CDC offers tips to protect children during a COVID-19 outbreak. Based on available evidence, children do not appear to be at higher risk for COVID-19 than adults. While some children and infants have been sick with COVID-19, adults make up most of the known cases to date. Topics include:

  • Take steps to protect children and others
  • Limit in person playtime with other children, and connect virtually if possible
  • Limit time with people at highest risk of severe illness from COVID-19

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/daily-life-coping/children/protect-children.html

  

Ways to Safely Seek Care During COVID-19 (Non-US Setting)

CDC offers guidelines on ways to safely seek care in a non-US setting. Topics include:

  • Follow national and local guidance
  • Practice safe behaviors when you are outside your home
  • Make sure your medicine does not run out

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/global-covid-19/ways-to-safely-seek-care-during-COVID-19.html

  

Other People Who Need Extra Precautions

CDC offers information for other populations like pregnant people, people experiencing homelessness, and people with disabilities. The two main sections include:

  • Those Who Need Extra Precautions
  • Supporting Those Needing Extra Precautions

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/other-at-risk-populations.html

  

Uses of Telehealth during COVID-19 in Low Resource, Non-US Settings

CDC offers information regarding changes in the way that health care is delivered during the COVID-19 pandemic, such as telehealth services. Telehealth services help provide necessary care to patients while minimizing the transmission risk of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, to healthcare workers and patients. Topics include:

  • Telehealth modalities
  • What are potential uses of telehealth during COVID-19?
  • What are potential limitations of telehealth?

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/global-covid-19/telehealth-covid19-nonUS.html

  

Duration of Isolation & Precautions for Adults

CDC states that accumulating evidence supports ending isolation and precautions for persons with COVID-19 using a symptom-based strategy. Their update incorporates recent evidence to inform the duration of isolation and precautions recommended to prevent transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to others, while limiting unnecessary prolonged isolation and unnecessary use of laboratory testing resources.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/duration-isolation.html

  

Contact Tracing

CDC offers information and guidance on contact tracing. Topics include contact tracing steps, what’s involved in contact tracing for COVID-19, quick facts, what a person diagnosed with COVID-19 can expect to happen during contact tracing, and what a close contact can expect to happen during contact tracing.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/daily-life-coping/contact-tracing.html

CDC added a video titled, “How COVID-19 Can Spread in a Community.”

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/open-america/contact-tracing-resources.html

Doctor Visits and Getting Medicines

CDC added a video titled, “Taking Care of Your Daily Health During COVID-19.”

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/daily-life-coping/doctor-visits-medicine.html

  

Duration of Isolation and Precautions for Adults with COVID-19

CDC updated guidance to incorporate recent evidence to inform the duration of isolation and precautions recommended to prevent transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to others, while limiting unnecessary prolonged isolation and unnecessary use of laboratory testing resources.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/duration-isolation.html

  

Considerations for Restaurants and Bars

CDC added a video titled, “Guidance for Bars and Restaurants During COVID-19.” Topics in this article include:

  • Guiding Principles
  • Reduce Spread
  • Healthy Environments
  • Healthy Operations
  • Sick Employees
  • Communication Resources
  • Other Resources

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/organizations/business-employers/bars-restaurants.html

  

Discontinuation of Isolation for Persons with COVID-19 Not in Healthcare Settings

CDC included updates as of July 17, 2020:

  • Symptom-based criteria were modified as follows: Changed from “at least 72 hours” to “at least 24 hours” have passed since last fever without the use of fever-reducing medications
  • Changed from “improvement in respiratory symptoms” to “improvement in symptoms” to address expanding list of symptoms associated with COVID-19
  • A summary of current evidence and rationale for these changes is described in a Decision Memo

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/disposition-in-home-patients.html

  

People of Any Age with Underlying Medical Conditions

CDC made revisions on July 17, 2020 to reflect recent data supporting increased risk of severe COVID-19 among individuals with cancer. The listed underlying medical conditions in children were also revised to indicate that these conditions might increase risk to better reflect the quality of available data currently. CDC is learning more about COVID-19 every day, and as new information becomes available, CDC will update the information.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/people-with-medical-conditions.html

  

Underlying Medical Conditions that Increase a Person’s Risk of Severe Illness from COVID-19

CDC added updates to the list of underlying medical conditions that put individuals at increased risk for severe illness from COVID-19. This list is based on published reports, articles in press, unreviewed pre-prints, and internal data available between December 1, 2019 and May 29, 2020. This list is a living document that will be periodically updated by CDC, and it could rapidly change as the science evolves. Severe illness from COVID-19 was defined as hospitalization, admission to the ICU, intubation or mechanical ventilation, or death.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/evidence-table.html

  

Interim Laboratory Biosafety Guidelines for Handling and Processing Specimens

CDC updated guidance to include the following revision:

  • Added DOT resources to Specimen Packing and Shipping and Resource section

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-nCoV/lab/lab-biosafety-guidelines.html

  

How to Report COVID-19 Laboratory Data

CDC updated guidance on how to report COVID-19 laboratory data. This guidance outlines reporting requirements for laboratories. Topics include:

  • Who must report
  • How to report
  • What to report
  • What to include
  • Using Standard Terminology
  • Assistance with Electronic Reporting
  • FAQs

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/lab/reporting-lab-data.html

  

Criteria for Return to Work for Healthcare Personnel (Interim Guidance)

CDC added changes as of July 16th:

  • Except for rare situations, a test-based strategy is no longer recommended to determine when to allow HCP to return to work.
  • For HCP with severe to critical illness or who are severely immunocompromised, the recommended duration for work exclusion was extended to 20 days after symptom onset (or, for asymptomatic severely immunocompromised HCP, 20 days after their initial positive SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic test).
  • Other symptom-based criteria were modified as follows: Changed from “at least 72 hours” to “at least 24 hours” have passed since last fever without the use of fever-reducing medications. Changed from “improvement in respiratory symptoms” to “improvement in symptoms” to address expanding list of symptoms associated with COVID-19.
  • A summary of current evidence and rationale for these changes is described in a Decision Memo.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/return-to-work.html

  

Public Health Management of Healthcare Workers Exposed to COVID-19

CDC added slides as a reference for content and can be used for training.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/non-us-settings/public-health-management-hcw-exposed.html

When to Wear Gloves

CDC updated guidance on when gloves are and aren’t needed. CDC included that for the general public, wearing gloves is not necessary in most situations, like running errands. CDC recommends wearing gloves when you are cleaning or caring for someone who is sick. Topics include:

  • When to use gloves
  • When gloves aren’t needed
  • Protect yourself in other ways
  • Gloves in the workplace

In addition, the CDC added a video titled, "Key Times to Wash Your Hands."

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/gloves.html

  

Considerations for Wearing Cloth Face Coverings

CDC updated guidance on considerations for wearing cloth face coverings to help slow the spread of COVID-19 including:

  • CDC recommends that people wear cloth face coverings in public settings and when around people who don’t live in your household, especially when other social distancing measures are difficult to maintain.
  • Cloth face coverings may help prevent people who have COVID-19 from spreading the virus to others.
  • Cloth face coverings are most likely to reduce the spread of COVID-19 when they are widely used by people in public settings.
  • Cloth face coverings should NOT be worn by children under the age of 2 or anyone who has trouble breathing, is unconscious, incapacitated, or otherwise unable to remove the mask without assistance.

Also, CDC added a video titled, “Key Times to Wear a Cloth Face Cover.”

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/cloth-face-cover-guidance.html

  

FAQs About COVID-19 for Laboratories

CDC offers an updated FAQ guide about COVID-19 for laboratories. Topics include:

  • Accessing Laboratory Testing
  • Test Developers
  • Serology
  • Specimen Handling
  • Specimen Packing and Shipping
  • Specimen Types
  • Anatomic Pathology
  • Ordering Supplies (For Public Health Laboratories)
  • Ordering Supplies (For Clinical Laboratories)

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/lab/faqs.html

  

Community Mitigation: Supporting States, Tribes, Localities, and Territories

CDC updated guidance on community mitigation to get and keep America open. Topics include:

  • Community Mitigation Concepts
  • Investigating Cases in Homeless Shelters
  • Travel-Associated Exposures
  • Community-Related Exposures
  • Environmental Health Practitioners
  • Approach for Monitoring and Evaluating Community Mitigation Strategies
  • Investigating & Responding to Cases in Non-Healthcare Work Settings

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/open-america/community-mitigation.html

  

Data on COVID-19 During Pregnancy

CDC updated guidance on tracking data on COVID-19 during pregnancy can protect pregnant women and their babies. Latest guidance includes:

  • Evaluation and Management Considerations for Neonates at Risk for COVID-19
  • Considerations for Inpatient Obstetric Healthcare Settings
  • Care for Breastfeeding Women

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/cases-updates/special-populations/pregnancy-data-on-covid-19.html

CDC’s Diagnostic Test for COVID-19 Only and Supplies

The CDC 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase (RT)–PCR Diagnostic Panel detects the SARS-CoV-2 virus in upper and lower respiratory specimens. It is designed to be used with an existing RT-PCR testing instrument commonly used to test for seasonal influenza virus. In addition, CDC offers information on how to order the Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase (RT)-PCR Diagnostic Panel, materials included in the diagnostic panel, and other materials labs will need to perform the diagnostic panel.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/lab/virus-requests.html

  

Social Distancing: Keep a Safe Distance to Slow the Spread Update

CDC added a new video titled, “Key Times to Practice Social Distancing.”

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/social-distancing.html

  

Quarantine If You Might Be Sick

CDC added a new video titled, “What’s the difference between quarantine and isolation?”

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/if-you-are-sick/quarantine.html

  

Interim Recommendations for EMS Systems and 911 Public Safety Answering Points/Emergency Communication Centers Update

CDC offers guidance that applies to all medical first responders, including fire services, emergency medical services, and emergency management officials, who anticipate close contact with persons with suspected or confirmed Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in the course of their work.

Below are changes to the guidance as of July 15, 2020:

Reorganized recommendations into 2 sections:

  • Recommended infection prevention and control (IPC) practices for routine activities during the pandemic.
  • Recommended IPC practices when caring for a patient with suspected or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Added recommendations that were included in healthcare IPC FAQs addressing:

  • Universal use of PPE for healthcare personnel working in communities with moderate to sustained transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19
  • Creating a process for responding to SARS-CoV-2 exposures among healthcare personnel and others.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/guidance-for-ems.html

  

Interim Infection Prevention and Control Recommendations for Healthcare Personnel Update

CDC added language that includes protective eyewear (e.g., safety glasses, trauma glasses) with gaps between glasses and the face likely do not protect eyes from all splashes and sprays. Below are changes to the guidance as of July 15, 2020:

Eye Protection

  • Put on eye protection (i.e., goggles or a face shield that covers the front and sides of the face) upon entry to the patient room or care area, if not already wearing as part of extended use strategies to optimize PPE supply.
  • Protective eyewear (e.g., safety glasses, trauma glasses) with gaps between glasses and the face likely do not protect eyes from all splashes and sprays.
  • Ensure that eye protection is compatible with the respirator so there is no interference with proper positioning of the eye protection or with the fit or seal of the respirator.
  • Remove eye protection after leaving the patient room or care area, unless implementing extended use.
  • Reusable eye protection (e.g., goggles) must be cleaned and disinfected according to manufacturer’s reprocessing instructions prior to re-use. Disposable eye protection should be discarded after use unless following protocols for extended use or reuse.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/infection-control-recommendations.html

  

Strategies for Optimizing the Supply of Eye Protection

CDC released this document to offer a series of strategies or options to optimize supplies of eye protection in healthcare settings when there is limited supply. Strategies include:

  • Conventional Capacity
  • Contingency Capacity
  • Crisis Capacity
  • Selected Options for Reprocessing Eye Protection

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/ppe-strategy/eye-protection.html

  

Considerations for Public Pools, Hot Tubs, and Water Playgrounds

CDC offers the following considerations for the safety of those who operate, manage, and use public pools, hot tubs, and water playgrounds. Topics include:

  • Promoting behaviors that prevent the spread of COVID-19
  • Maintaining healthy environments
  • Maintaining healthy operations
  • Preparing for when someone gets sick
  • Communication resources
  • Other resources

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/parks-rec/aquatic-venues.html

CDC Calls on Americans to Wear Masks to Prevent COVID-19 Spread

JAMA editorial reviews latest science, while case study shows masks prevented COVID spread. This review included two case studies out today, one from JAMA, showing that adherence to universal masking policies reduced SARS-CoV-2 transmission within a Boston hospital system, and one from CDC’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), showing that wearing a mask prevented the spread of infection from two hair stylists to their customers in Missouri.

https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2020/p0714-americans-to-wear-masks.html

  

Toolkit for Colleges and Universities Update

Guidance and tools to help colleges and universities make decisions, protect their students and instructors, and communicate with their communities. FAQs regarding spread and prevention plus guidance and planning documents:

  • Interim Guidance for Administrators of US Institutions of Higher Education
  • Considerations for Institutions of Higher Education
  • Cleaning and Disinfecting
  • Interim Considerations for Institutions of Higher Education Administrators for SARS-CoV-2 Testing
  • Guidance for Institutions of Higher Education with Students Participating in International Travel or Study Abroad Programs
  • COVID-19 Guidance for Shared or Congregate Housing
  • Living in Shared Housing
  • Considerations for Events and Gatherings

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/communication/toolkits/colleges-and-universities.html

  

For Researchers: Updates to Multiplex Assay

CDC released genetic sequences for SARS-CoV-2 (Flu SC2) intended to be used for the purposes of respiratory virus surveillance and research. Not for viral testing use.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/lab/multiplex-primer-probes.html

  

Interim Guidance on Management in Correctional and Detention Facilities

This document provides interim guidance specific for correctional facilities and detention centers during the outbreak of COVID-19, to ensure continuation of essential public services and protection of the health and safety of incarcerated and detained persons, staff, and visitors.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/correction-detention/guidance-correctional-detention.html

  

COVID-19 Graphics and Buttons

CDC has provided graphics and buttons for public use. The graphics can be placed in any way that works best for any particular site. CDC has released the graphics to be used on as many sites as possible to enhance access to up to date information on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/communication/graphics-buttons.html

FAQs for Events and Event Planners

CDC released an FAQ page for conferences, sporting events, concerts or other community events. Topics include planning and preparedness such as testing attendees and staff, face coverings, cleaning, and disinfection. Further information is included on steps to take with a confirmed case of COVID-19 at an event.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/large-events/event-planners-and-attendees-faq.html

  

Non-Emergency Transportation for Tribal Communities

CDC issued safety guidance for transportation of tribal community members to minimize the risk of spreading COVID-19 when sharing personal vehicles. The following practices are to be incorporated:

  • Wear cloth face covering
  • Practice social distancing
  • Hand hygiene
  • Bring cleaning supplies

If a passenger is sick with COVID or transported for medical care:

  • Wear respiratory protection
  • Limit contact
  • Clean and disinfect

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/tribal/non-ems-transportation.html

Multiple Toolkits Issued and/or Updated

CDC has issued or updated multiple communication and action toolkits for entities to use to decrease the spread of COVID-19. Toolkits include:

  • Businesses and Workplaces: Guidance tools to help business owners make decisions, protect their customers and employees, and communicate with their communities. Includes fact sheets, FAQs, planning documents, and printable infographics.
  • Contact Tracing Communications: Messaging for contact tracers while reaching out to those who may have come in contact with somebody diagnosed with COVID-19
  • Childcare Programs and Summer Camps: Guidance tools to help administrators make decisions, protect children and staff and communicate with their communities.
  • Community and Faith-Based Organizations: Guidance and tools to help organizations make decisions, communicate with their communities and protect their employees, volunteers and members.
  • Domestic Travelers: Guidance to help travelers protect themselves, their families and community.
  • K-12 Schools: Guidance for administrators including planning documents, checklist for parents and checklist for teachers.
  • Shared and Congregate Housing: Guidance for owners, administrators or operators to make decisions, protect and communicate with residents, staff, and public health officials.
  • Youth Sports: Guidance for administrators and coaches to make decisions to protect teams and players. Includes checklist for coaches.
  • Parks & Recreational Facilities: Guidance to protect employees and visitors. Includes FAQs, planning documents, social media and PSAs.
  • Young Adults 15-21: Resources and tools designed to keep young adults healthy as they venture out including a self-checker, social media posts, buying gas, take-out food, cleaning and disinfection.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/communication/toolkits/index.html

  

FAQs for Businesses Updated

Business FAQs were updated and now include special sections for the following:

  • Suspected or Confirmed Cases of COVID-19 in the Workplace
  • Reducing the Spread of COVID-19 in Workplaces
  • Healthy Business Operations
  • Cleaning and Disinfection in the Workplace
  • Critical Infrastructure

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/general-business-faq.html

  

Pandemic Planning Scenarios

CDC updated model of 5 scenarios for pandemic planning taking into consideration such variables as viral transmissibility, disease severity, asymptomatic contribution to disease transmission, and infection fatality rate. Current updates include: 

  • The Infection Fatality Ratio (IFR) has been added to Table 1 as a new parameter value for disease severity, replacing the Symptomatic Case Fatality Ratio and the Symptomatic Case Hospitalization Ratio. IFR takes into account both symptomatic and asymptomatic cases and may therefore be a more directly measurable parameter for disease severity for COVID-19.
  • Some of the parameters for healthcare usage in Table 2 have been revised, and the updated estimates for most of these values are based on a new data source: the COVID-19-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET).
  • A new parameter for healthcare usage has been added: the percentage of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 who die during hospitalization.
  • The definition for the percent of transmission occurring prior to symptom onset (pre-symptomatic transmission) has been clarified in this update; this parameter applies to cases that eventually become symptomatic.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/planning-scenarios.html

  

Guidance for US Healthcare Facilities

CDC updated guidance for preparedness into the following broad categories:

  • Using telehealth
  • Framework for non-COVID-19 care
  • Healthcare Provider Checklist
  • Facility guidance based on type such as ambulatory care, assisted living, dental, hospital, pharmacy
  • Mitigating staff shortages
  • eCR for COVID-19 cases
  • Relief healthcare facilities (see below on transferring patients)

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/us-healthcare-facilities.html

  

Relief Health Care Facilities

Relief Healthcare Facilities (RHFs): Established licensed healthcare facilities (e.g., hospitals, long-term acute care hospitals, long-term care facilities, and other licensed inpatient healthcare facilities) that accept patient transfers or share extra resources to extend conventional standards of care to as many people as possible during a crisis and therefore minimize the use of crisis standards of care. Elements needed for use of relief healthcare facilities include:

  • Regional coordination and centralized decision making
  • Central secure database for tracking, triage, and placement
  • PPE tracked in a centralized system
  • Proper resources and capacity at the relieve healthcare facility (such as trained healthcare providers, and appropriate equipment and rooms)
  • Interfacility and patient communication

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/relief-healthcare-facilities.html

  

Optimizing PPE Supply

CDC updated guidance to optimize PPE supply for healthcare entities to manage using surge capacity protocols based on Conventional Capacity, Contingency Capacity and Crisis Capacity. A PPE calculator is posted, and guidance is provided for eye protection, isolation gowns, gloves, facemasks, N95 respirators, Powered Air Purifying Respirators (PAPRs), elastomeric respirators and ventilators.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/ppe-strategy/index.html

Guidelines for Collecting, Handling and Testing Clinical Specimens

CDC provided updates to their testing processes from persons for COVID-19 in specimen type and priority. For initial diagnostic testing for SARS-CoV-2, CDC recommends collecting and testing an upper respiratory specimen. The following are acceptable specimens:

  • A nasopharyngeal (NP) specimen collected by a healthcare provider; or
  • An oropharyngeal (OP) specimen collected by a healthcare provider; or
  • A nasal mid-turbinate swab collected by a healthcare provider or by a supervised onsite self-collection (using a flocked tapered swab); or
  • An anterior nares (nasal swab) specimen collected by a healthcare provider or by home or supervised onsite self-collection (using a flocked or spun polyester swab); or
  • Nasopharyngeal wash/aspirate or nasal wash/aspirate (NW) specimen collected by a healthcare provider.

Swabs should be placed immediately into a sterile transport tube containing 2-3mL of either viral transport medium (VTM), Amies transport medium, or sterile saline, unless using a test designed to analyze a specimen directly, (i.e., without placement in VTM), such as some point-of-care tests. If VTM is not available, see the standard operating procedure for public health labs to create viral transport medium in accordance with CDC’s protocol.

The NW specimen and the non-bacteriostatic saline used to collect the specimen should be placed immediately into a sterile transport tube.

Testing lower respiratory tract specimens is also an option. For patients who develop a productive cough, sputum should be collected and tested for SARS-CoV-2. The induction of sputum is not recommended.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-nCoV/lab/guidelines-clinical-specimens.html

  

Recommendations for Tribal Ceremonies & Gatherings

CDC recognizes the cultural importance of ceremonies such as sweat lodge, social gatherings and seasonal ceremonies, birthday parties and larger gatherings such as pow wows and rodeos and offers these considerations regarding levels of risk:

  • Lowest risk: Tribal ceremonies or gatherings are conducted virtually (e.g., by communicating online, or by video conferencing or telephone), if traditions allow.
  • More risk: Small in-person ceremonies or gatherings are held. Gatherings take place outside or in larger structures with good air flow. No food is served at ceremonies or gatherings. Tribal members remain at least 6 feet (or about 2 arms’ lengths) away from others, wear cloth face coverings, and do not share or touch the same items.
  • Higher risk: Medium-sized in-person ceremonies or gatherings are adapted to allow tribal members to remain at least 6 feet apart. Tribal members are encouraged to wear cloth face coverings. Food is served in pre-packaged boxes with disposable utensils.
  • Highest risk: Large in-person ceremonies or gatherings are held where it is difficult for tribal members to remain at least 6 feet apart because of increased number of participants based on the venue size. Tribal members share or touch the same items. Food is served “potluck” or family style. Tribal members attending the ceremony or gathering come from multiple tribal communities or from outside the local geographic area.

Tribal leaders and elders might consider:

  • Postponing, rescheduling, canceling or going virtual
  • Limit the size of ceremonies
  • Hold events in a large, well ventilated area or outdoors
  • Encourage social distancing with ample seating and physical guides such as tape to mark floors
  • Encourage face coverings
  • Promote hand hygiene
  • Increase cleaning and disinfection
  • Consider not serving food or changing how food is served

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/tribal/ceremonies-gatherings.html

  

Guidelines for Non-US Healthcare and Outpatient Facilities

CDC in collaboration with WHO has outlined strategies for implementation of infection prevention control in preparation for a worldwide second wave of infections. The outpatient clinic document is focused to:

  1. Minimize disease transmission to patients and health workers (HWs),
  2. Identify persons with signs and symptoms of suspected COVID-19 for rapid isolation and triage, and
  3. Maintain essential health services.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/non-us-settings/outpatient.html

The hospital and healthcare facility document is focused on these areas:

  1. Triage of patients upon initial encounter at a healthcare facility
  2. Limiting the entry of healthcare workers and visitors with suspected COVID-19
  3. Identification and isolation of inpatients with suspected COVID-19

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/non-us-settings/index.html

  

Seroprevalence Survey Infographic Released

CDC released infographic for the general public explaining antibody testing also known as serology.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/covid-data/seroprevalance-surveys-tell-us.html

FAQs For People Who Use Drugs or Have Substance Use Disorder and Clinicians

Severe illness from COVID-19 for people who use drugs or have substance use disorder is not known, people who use drugs may have underlying medical conditions that put them at increased risk for severe illness. CDC provided an FAQs including guidance for relapse and use resistance support, harm reduction strategies, naloxone, telemedicine.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/other-at-risk-populations/people-who-use-drugs/QA.html

  

Tracking of Multi-System Inflammatory Syndrome in US Children

CDC updated hospital reported cases meeting these criteria: Hospitalized patients, 21 years old, fever >24 hours, Laboratory evidence of inflammation, >2 organs involved, evidence of SARS-CoV-2 or exposure in the prior month. Epidemiology of MIS-C Hospital-reported MIS-C Cases by State:

  • 16 states reported 1-6 cases
  • 4 states reported 7-14 cases
  • 1 state reported 15-21 cases
  • 4 states reported 22-29 cases

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/covid-data/infographic-mis-c.html#text

Funeral Home Workers

CDC updated guidance on funeral home workers and handling the body of a person who has died of COVID-19. A funeral or visitation service can be held. The funeral home workers should follow their routine infection prevention and control precautions when handling a decedent including standard precautions during embalming and PPE (disposable gown, face shield or goggles, N95 respirator, heavy duty gloves over nitrile disposable gloves). Use EPA approved products for disinfection.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/funeral-faqs.html

  

Guidance for Lab Safety Practices

CDC updated guidance is to address the general workflow safety concerns of laboratory personnel. In addition to the usual COVID-19 precautions of social distancing, hand hygiene, cleaning and disinfection, and face coverings, labs are to perform risk assessments that take the following into account:

  • Analyze the number of people that the laboratory space can realistically and safely accommodate while maintaining social distancing.
  • Assess the flow of personnel traffic. Where possible, design one-way paths for staff to walk through the laboratory space.
  • Assess procedures for cleaning and sanitizing commonly shared equipment and areas—for example, counters, bench tops, and desks—to ensure clean surfaces and equipment for all users.
  • Review emergency communication and operational plans, including how to protect staff at higher risk for severe illness from COVID-19.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/lab/lab-safety-practices.html

  

Considerations for Animal Activities at Fairs, Shows, and Other Events

CDC issued updates to clarify precautions for susceptible animals and add details for livestock show precautions. Regarding susceptible animals, implement additional precautions to maintain at least 6 feet separation between any species shown to be susceptible to SARS-CoV-2, including cats and other felids; dogs; small mammals such as mink, ferrets, and rabbits; and other animal shown to be susceptible to this virus.

  • Prohibit susceptible animals from fairgrounds if they are not involved in fair or show activities.
  • Prevent direct contact and institute policies to ensure at least 6 feet separation is maintained between these susceptible animals and other animals and between these animals and people. The number of exhibitors and animals that can safely fit in a show ring or exhibit area may limit the number of animals that can be shown at one time.

Regarding Livestock and Horse Shows Work to Maintain Social Distancing Through the Following Steps:

  • Split classes to limit the number of animals in the show ring.
  • Cattle, horse, sheep, and goat shows naturally lend to social distancing when on the walk; adapt spacing to maintain distance between participants.
  • Limit the number of people and/or animals in a ring to ensure that at least 6 feet is kept between an animal and its handler and other people and animals including judges. The number of exhibitors and animals that can safely fit in a show ring or exhibit area may limit the number of animals that can be shown at one time.
  • Provide separate entry and exit points for visitors so they do not need to pass close together while coming into and going out of the ring.
  • Stagger activities in washing and grooming areas, or other shared spaces, so that animals from different farms or households do not interact unnecessarily and so that people can maintain a distance of at least 6 feet apart from each other.
  • Stagger animal move-in/move-out times to reduce contact between people and animals.
  • Consider a “show-and-go” with animals stalled at a trailer and leaving immediately after the show if this will not compromise animal welfare, for example, because of weather conditions such as high temperature and humidity.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/animals/events-animal-activities.html

  

Considerations for Traveling Amusement Parks

CDC offers the following considerations for ways in which operators of these venues can protect staff, guests, and communities from the spread of coronavirus. Guiding principles:

  • The more and longer people interact, the higher the potential risk of becoming infected with and spreading SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.
  • The higher the level of community transmission at traveling amusement parks and carnivals, the higher the risk of COVID-19 spreading during park operations.
  • The size of an event or gathering should be determined based on state, local, territorial or tribal safety laws and regulations.

Operators are to promote behaviors that reduce the spread.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/parks-rec/amusement-park-carnival.html

CDC’s Multiplex Assay for Flu and COVID-19

CDC has developed a single test that detects and differentiates RNA from SARS-CoV-2, influenza A virus, and influenza B virus in upper or lower respiratory specimens. The assay is important because:

  • Serves as a single test to diagnose infection caused by one of three viruses: SARS-CoV-2, influenza A, and influenza B
  • Allows laboratories to process more tests in a given period
  • Gives public health officials information they need in their efforts to control the spread of COVID-19 and flu
  • Allows for ongoing flu surveillance while also testing for SARS-CoV-2
  • Conserves important testing materials that are in short supply

This is a different test kit than the currently available COVID-19 only kits. Multiplex Assay Test kits are in production and will be shipped to public health laboratories once production, including quality control and assembly, has been completed. Public Health laboratories are to coordinate with the International Reagent Resource to obtain the tests.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/lab/multiplex.html

  

Testing in Non-Healthcare Workplaces

CDC provided additional strategies for SARS-CoV-2 testing wherein antibody (blood serology) tests are used to detect past infection and should not be the sole basis for diagnosis current infection and viral tests evaluate whether the virus is present in the respiratory tract of a tested individual. There are five categories of prioritization.

  • Testing individuals with signs or symptoms consistent with COVID-19
  • Testing asymptomatic individuals with recent known or suspected exposure to SARS-CoV-2 to control transmission
  • Testing asymptomatic individuals without known or suspected exposure to SARS-CoV-2 for early identification in special settings
  • Testing to determine resolution of infection (e.g., discontinuation of home isolation)
  • Public health surveillance for SARS-CoV-2

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/organizations/testing-non-healthcare-workplaces.html

   

Testing in Healthcare Workplaces

CDCC updated summary of considerations and recommendations for testing healthcare personnel (HCP). Testing of HCP can be considered in four situations:

  1. Testing HCP with signs or symptoms consistent with COVID-19
  2. Testing asymptomatic HCP with known or suspected exposure to SARS-CoV-2
  3. Testing asymptomatic HCP without known or suspected exposure to SARS-CoV-2 for early identification in special settings (e.g., nursing homes)
  4. Testing HCP who have been diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection to determine when they are no longer infectious

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/testing-healthcare-personnel.html

  

Quarantine if Suspected Exposure

CDC released specific guidance for general public for people who might have been exposed to COVID-19. Close contact is what qualifies as exposure. People with exposure are to:

  • Stay home for 14 days after your last contact with a person who has COVID-19
  • Watch for fever (100.4◦F), cough, shortness of breath, or other symptoms of COVID-19
  • If possible, stay away others, especially people who are at higher risk for getting very sick from COVID-19

Last day of quarantine ends 14 days after the potential exposure, even if having been in quarantine prior.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/if-you-are-sick/quarantine.html

  

Isolate if Sick

CDC updated language indicating isolation as the key means to reduce spread. Isolation is used to separate people infected with the virus (those who are sick with COVID-19 and those with no symptoms) from people who are not infected. People who are in isolation should stay home until it’s safe for them to be around others. In the home, anyone sick or infected should separate themselves from others by staying in a specific “sick room” or area and using a separate bathroom (if available). Isolation can end after:

  • 3 days with no fever and
  • Respiratory symptoms have improved and
  • 10 days since symptoms first appeared

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/if-you-are-sick/isolation.html

COVID-19 Epidemiology

CDC published education describing epidemiologists work with other scientists to find who has it, why they have it, and what CDC can do about it. There are four areas of focus for epidemiologists:

  1. Identify the source of the outbreak
  2. Monitor and track the disease
  3. Study the disease
  4. Develop guidance for actions to slow the spread of the disease and lessen its impact

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/cases-updates/about-epidemiology/index.html

  

Visiting Beaches and Pools

CDC updated guidance for visiting beaches and pools. There is no evidence that SARS-CoV-2 virus can spread to people through water in oceans, lakes, and other natural bodies of water, pools, water playgrounds and hot tubs. However, droplet transmission is still possible. Recommendations include the usual 5 steps:

  1. Stay home if ill
  2. Cloth face coverings, it is suggested to bring two in case one gets wet
  3. Social distancing in and out of the water
  4. Respiratory etiquette and hand hygiene
  5. Clean and disinfect regularly

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/daily-life-coping/beaches-pools.html

  

Public Service Announcements

Organizations with the ability to communicate to large groups of people are encouraged to use CDC developed Public Service Announcement in both Audio and/or written form. All PSA are available in both English and Spanish, and some in other languages. Topics include these and others:

  • Everyday prevention actions
  • COVID-19 readiness
  • Cleaning and disinfection
  • People who need extra precautions
  • Travel
  • For areas with stay at home or shelter in place orders
  • International travelers returning home

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/communication/public-service-announcements.html

Guidelines for the Implementation and Use of Digital Tools to Augment Contact Tracing

CDC released a document that refers to case management tools and proximity and exposure notification tools. Case management tools make the traditional contact tracing process faster and more efficient:

  • These tools can streamline the electronic capture and management of data on patients and contacts by enabling automation of contact notification and follow-up, and by allowing patients and contacts to electronically self-report (e.g. demographic and clinical data, contacts, services needed).
  • Workflows may integrate with surveillance systems or other workforce management tools (e.g., virtual call centers, test scheduling, support services).

Proximity exposure and notification tools help identify more contacts and notify them of exposure faster than traditional contact tracing alone.

  • Voluntary, opt-in tools using Bluetooth or GPS technologies (most commonly via smartphone apps) can be used to estimate the proximity and duration of an individual’s exposure to patient(s) diagnosed with COVID-19.
  • More data (from pilots and limited implementations) are needed to quantify the public health value of these tools.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/downloads/php/guidelines-digital-tools-contact-tracing.pdf

  

Testing in K-12 and Higher Education Institutions

CDC has suggested testing regimens for learning institutions. While K-12 schools play a role in identifying students, faculty, and staff who have COVID-19 symptoms or who have had recent known or potential exposure to SARS-CoV-2, school staff are not expected to directly administer SARS-CoV-2 tests. In some circumstances, school-based healthcare providers (e.g., school nurses, physicians) may conduct SARS-CoV-2 testing in their capacity as healthcare providers, such as in school-based health centers. Not every school-based healthcare provider will have the resources or training to conduct testing, and accordingly, should not feel compelled to do so; these providers can help link students and their families and staff to other opportunities for testing in the community.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/schools-childcare/k-12-testing.html

In institutions of higher education, individuals with COVID-19 signs or symptoms should be referred to a healthcare provider for evaluation on whether testing is needed. In some locations, individuals can also visit their state or local health department’s website to look for the latest local information on testing.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/colleges-universities/ihe-testing.html

  

Training for Healthcare Professionals

CDC set up a single resource page for health care professionals to receive training. Topics include:

  • Clinical care and infection control
    • Outreach and communication activity calls
    • Prevention in long-term care facilities
    • Prevention in hemodialysis facilities
    • Research update
    • Nursing home infection preventionist training course
  • PPE
    • Donning and doffing PPE
    • Optimization strategies for healthcare PPE
    • Respiratory protection resources
  • Nonpharmaceutical interventions
    • Application and integration to planning, preparedness and response
    • The science of social distancing
  • Emergency preparedness and response
    • Hurricane Preparedness in the context of COVID-19
    • Psychological first aid
    • Crisis and emergency risk communication
    • Public health emergency law
    • Reproductive health in emergency preparedness and response
    • National Incident Management System
  • Additional topics
    • Workplace violence prevention for nurses
    • COVID-19 in animals

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/training.html

  

Antibody Testing

CDC updated guidance to the general public regarding antibody testing to include an updated guidance document on interpreting COVID-19 test results. Decisions about testing are made by state or local health departments or healthcare providers. Antibody tests are available through healthcare providers and laboratories.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/testing/serology-overview.html

Animal Testing Guidance

CDC collaborated with US Dept. of Agriculture to update guidance on animal testing or SARS-CoV-2. Overall guidance includes:

  • Routine testing of animals for SARS-CoV-2 is not recommended.
  • The decision to test an animal, including companion animals, livestock, and wild or zoo animals, should be agreed upon using a One Health approach with the appropriate local, state, and/or federal public health and animal health officials.
  • This document provides recommendations to guide priorities for animal SARS-CoV-2 testing given limited resources.
  • Veterinarians are strongly encouraged to rule out other, more common causes of illness in animals before considering SARS-CoV-2 testing.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/animals/animal-testing.html

  

Preventing Spread of COVID-19 in Retirement Communities and Independent Living Facilities

CDC updated considerations for ways in which administrators of retirement communities and independent living facilities can help protect residents, workers, visitors, and communities and slow the spread of COVID-19.

Actions are to be taken in collaboration with state and local health officials and tailored to the needs of each community. These considerations are meant to supplement—not replace—any state, local, territorial, or tribal health and safety laws, rules, and regulations with which retirement communities and independent living facilities must comply. The following guiding principles were suggested:

  • Risk increases with age, and/or
  • They may have underlying health conditions such as heart disease, diabetes, or lung disease. 

Further, risk increases based on activity and setting as follows:

  • Lower Risk for this Setting: Residents do not spend time in each other’s individual living spaces, and most communal areas (e.g., cafeteria, activity room) are closed. Workers and residents remain at least 6 feet apart at all times, undergo daily health screenings, and wear cloth face coverings correctly. Non-essential volunteers and visitors are not permitted.
  • More Risk for this Setting: Residents do not spend time in each other’s individual living spaces. Individual residents may use properly ventilated communal areas (e.g., dining room) or participate in small group outdoor activities, but they remain at least 6 feet apart at all times. Workers, residents, volunteers, and visitors remain at least 6 feet apart at all times, undergo daily health screenings, and wear cloth face coverings correctly. Non-essential volunteers and visitors are permitted, but limited.
  • Higher Risk for this Setting: Residents spend significant time indoors together, possibly in each other’s living spaces as well as in communal areas. They may not consistently remain at least 6 feet apart, nor wear cloth face coverings. They also frequently spend time in the larger community (e.g., traveling together to attend public events). Non-essential volunteers and visitors are not restricted.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/retirement/considerations.html

Strategies for Optimizing the Supply of N95 Respirators, Face Masks, Eye Protection and Isolation Gowns

CDC has updated 4 of its guidance pages to provide guidance on rationing various PPE, especially in healthcare settings where a shortage may occur. Strategies are based on three strata of surge capacity and can be used to prioritize measures to conserve PPE.

  • Conventional capacity: measures consist of providing patient care without any change in daily contemporary practices. This set of measures, consisting of engineering, administrative, and personal protective equipment (PPE) controls should already be implemented in general infection prevention and control plans in healthcare settings.
  • Contingency capacity: measures may change daily standard practices but may not have any significant impact on the care delivered to the patient or the safety of healthcare personnel (HCP). These practices may be used temporarily during periods of expected facemask shortages.
  • Crisis capacity: strategies that are not commensurate with U.S. standards of care. These measures, or a combination of these measures, may need to be considered during periods of known facemask shortages.

Information is given for each level of capacity based on the PPE:

  

Considerations for Bank Employees

CDC released guidance for bank employees to prevent the spread of infection. Exposures may happen by:

  • Being in close contact (within 6 feet) with customers or coworkers.
  • Sharing common workplace equipment such as computers or phones.
  • Touching or handling items, cash, or paperwork and then touching your mouth, nose, or eyes.

Prevention strategies include the well published steps of social distancing (or barriers if not possible), self-isolating if ill, face coverings, hand hygiene and frequent cleaning and disinfection of the work environment.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/organizations/bank-employees.html

  

Care for Patients at Home

CDC released interim guidance for staff at entities who are coordinating the home care and isolation of people with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 infection, including persons under investigation. Staff are to:

  • Assess the suitability of the residential setting for home care
  • Provide guidance for precautions to implement during home care

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/guidance-home-care.html

  

Protecting Children During a COVID-19 Outbreak

Based on available evidence, children do not appear to be at higher risk for COVID-19 than adults. These steps are suggested:

  • Hand hygiene, cleaning and disinfection of environment, social distancing
  • Face coverings for children over 2 years old
  • Limit time with other children
  • Avoid people who are ill or showing symptoms
  • Be aware of Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/daily-life-coping/children/protect-children.html

  

Toolkit for State Public Health Veterinarians

CDC published a toolkit that provides recommendations for public health and animal health officials involved in managing companion animals diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2, including those that require hospitalization and those that may be isolated or monitored at home. Tools include steps for:

  • Preparing and planning for test-positive animals
  • Considerations for service animals
  • Establish flow of information with state public and animal health officials
  • Establish a plan for treating a test-positive animal
  • Determine animal hospitalization or in-patient care
  • PPE guidelines
  • Isolating a test-positive animal at home
  • Repeat testing and epidemiological investigation

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/animals/toolkit.html

  

Restaurants and Bars Communications

CDC released a toolkit with infographics and a letter to staff pertaining to reducing the spread of COVD-19 in restaurants and bars to pair with their written guidance.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/organizations/business-employers/bars-restaurants.html

  

Testing in Congregate Settings

CDC has published an Overview of Testing for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, and provided interim considerations for facility-wide testing in specific settings. This document is intended to help public health departments and healthcare providers prepare for broad-based viral testing in facilities after known or suspected SARS-CoV-2 exposure or when there is moderate to substantial transmission in the community, based on guidance for specific settings.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/broad-based-testing.html

COVID-19 Considerations for Animal Activities at Fairs, Shows, and Other Events

CDC released guidance for the general public and event organizers to reduce the risk of spread at fairs and agricultural shows indicating the steps of contact tracing. Fairs and agricultural shows pose unique health risks because they bring together crowds of people and animals with opportunities for close contact among them and mixing of different animals from different places. Fair and agricultural show organizers should consider the potential for COVID-19 to spread from person to person, person to animal, and possibly from animal to animal. The risk of animal-to-person spread is considered low.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/animals/events-animal-activities.html

  

Safe Watering Points Guidance

CDC released guidance for tribal communities to set up and maintain safe watering points. Key points and printable poster include:

  • Posting operating hours
  • Using signage to encourage handwashing, physical distancing and face coverings
  • Provide protective gloves for operators who disinfect commonly touched areas at watering points
  • Provide a handwashing station
  • Provide disinfectant wipes or spray
  • Provide lined trash bin
  • Place visual cues for social distancing

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/safe-watering.html

  

Guidance for Pet Stores, Pet Distributors, and Pet Breeding Facilities

Guidance for operators to prevent the spread in these facilities was released. In addition to the usual hand hygiene, social distancing, cleaning and disinfection, and face coverings, facilities are encouraged to ensure they review and adhere to established state and industry biosafety and biosecurity practices. Some simple steps to reduce the spread include:

  • Workers exposed to sick people or animals may need to self-monitor for temperature or other symptoms
  • Limit the number of people in the facility, time spent there, and increase distance between people
  • Consider a 2-week quarantine period for new animals or groups of animals
  • Treat a bite, scratch or abrasion by washing exposed area of skin immediately with soap and warm water for at least 20 seconds, alert supervisor and contact a healthcare provider
  • If an animal is suspected to have SARS-CoV-2 infection:
    • Consult with facility veterinarian
    • Contact state Public Health Veterinarian or State Animal Health Official immediately
    • Isolate the animal and avoid contact with people or other animals in the facility
    • Testing may or may not be completed with the sick animal

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/animals/pet-store.html

Contact Tracing Steps for the General Public

CDC released guidance for the general public indicating the steps of contact tracing. The steps involve:

  • Interviewing people with COVID-19 to identify everyone they had close contact with during the time they may have been infectious
  • Notifying contacts of their potential exposure
  • Referring contacts for testing
  • Monitoring contacts for signs and symptoms of COVID-19
  • Connecting contacts with services they might need during the self-quarantine period

And the contact tracing steps are:

  • Case investigation: Public health staff work with a patient to help them recall everyone they have had close contact with during the time they may have been infectious.
  • Contact tracing: Public health staff begin contact tracing by notifying exposed people (contacts) of their potential exposure as rapidly and sensitively as possible, not revealing the infected patient’s identity.
  • Contact support: Contacts are provided with education, information, and support to help them understand their risk, what they should do to separate themselves from others who are not exposed, and how to monitor themselves for illness. In addition, they are informed of the possibility that they could spread the infection to others even if they do not feel ill.
  • Self-quarantine: Contacts are encouraged to stay home, monitor their health, and maintain social distance (at least 6 feet) from others until 14 days after their last exposure to the infected patient, in case they also become ill.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/daily-life-coping/contact-tracing.html

  

Youth Sports Program FAQs

CDC released an FAQ page for youth sports programs including guidance on:

  • Amount of contact
  • Venue
  • Practicing social distancing
  • Cleaning and disinfection of equipment & surfaces
  • Response when athletes get COVID-19
  • Spectator guidance

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/schools-childcare/youth-sports.html

  

Nail Salon Employees

CDC released an updated guidance specific to nail salons. Beyond the usual symptom recognition, hand hygiene, face coverings and social distancing, these specifics were offered for cleaning and disinfecting.

  • Use single use tools and supplies (like powder vials for dipping nails) where possible. For items that must be used for multiple clients, disinfect after each client (such as nail file, clippers). Or follow the rules of your local board of health if you are supposed to use single-use tools.
  • Wear gloves appropriate for the products being used. You may need additional personal protective equipment if you are handling things that need extra protection, like acetone or other chemicals.
  • Clean these areas every hour:
    • Countertops, doorknobs, toilets, tables, light switches, phones, faucets, sinks, keyboards, etc.
  • Clean credit card devices, foot basins, curing lamps, keypads, etc. between clients.
  • Follow the directions on the cleaning product’s label.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/organizations/nail-salon-employees.html

  

Rapid Response Teams

CDC updated training outlines and guidance for the establishment and management of Rapid Response Teams (RRTs) for disease outbreaks. The RRT General Guidance outlines in detail the underlying RRT systems and processes, including the standard operating procedures (SOPs), requisite for an effective and efficient RRT.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/global-covid-19/rtt-management-introduction.html

Case Investigator Training

CDC has updated and released Case Investigator specific training plan including topics to consider when designing a training plan for those who interview confirmed and probable COVID-19 patients and gather information on their recent close contacts. Investigators completing the training should be able to conduct basic case investigation according to an established protocol.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/contact-tracing/case-investigators-topics.html

Food and Coronavirus

COVID-19 is thought to spread mostly person-to-person through respiratory droplets when someone coughs, sneezes or talks. It is possible to contract it by touching a surface or object, including food packaging, that has the virus on it and then touching the mouth, nose, or eyes. However, this is not thought to be the main way the virus spreads. Currently, there is no evidence to suggest that handling food or consuming food is associated with COVID-19. The risk of getting COVID-19 from food or food packaging is very low.

  • The risk of getting COVID-19 from food you cook yourself or from handling and consuming food from restaurants and takeout or drive-thru meals is thought to be very low. Currently, there is no evidence that food is associated with spreading the virus that causes COVID-19.
  • The risk of infection by the virus from food products, food packaging, or bags is thought to be very low. Currently, no cases of COVID-19 have been identified where infection was thought to have occurred by touching food, food packaging, or shopping bags.
  • Although some people who work in food production and processing facilities have gotten COVID-19, there is no evidence of the virus spreading to consumers through the food or packaging that workers in these facilities may have handled.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/daily-life-coping/food-and-COVID-19.html

  

Monitoring Community Mitigation

CDC developed a framework to evaluate community mitigation strategies and provide overarching considerations to support local health departments, or other organizations in monitoring and evaluating COVID-19 community mitigation strategies. The framework includes a logic model, suggested monitoring and evaluation questions, and potential data sources. The approach considers outcomes that minimize COVID-19 morbidity and associated mortality, effects of community mitigation strategies on long-standing health disparities and social determinants of health, and how communities thrive socially, emotionally, and economically.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/monitoring-evaluating-community-mitigation-strategies.html

Considerations for Casinos & Gaming Operations

As some casinos and gaming operations resume in some areas of the United States, CDC offers the following considerations for ways in which casino and gaming operators can help protect staff and customers and slow the spread of COVID-19. Casinos and gaming operations can determine, in collaboration with local, state, territorial, federal, or tribal health officials, whether and how to implement these considerations, making adjustments to meet the needs and circumstances of the local community. Guiding Principles to keep in mind based on risk of spread:

  • Lowest Risk: Gaming activities are only available in virtual or online format.
  • More Risk: Casinos are open but with limitations to allow social distancing and disinfection of machines between uses. Activities are limited to gaming machines and equipment that do not require a dealer and that can be played by one customer at a time and disinfected between uses. Individuals remain spaced at least 6 feet apart (2 arms’ length) while seated or standing. Sharing of gaming materials and equipment is not allowed.
  • Even More Risk: Casinos are open but with limitations to allow social distancing. Games that require a dealer and that allow multiple players at the same time are offered, but the number of players is limited. Individuals remain spaced at least 6 feet apart while seated or standing. When possible, casino limits customers’ sharing of objects such as dice, card shoes, shufflers, and roulette wheels, Pai Gow tiles, pit podiums, blackjack discard holders, and toke boxes. Casino cleans and disinfects these objects between uses as much as possible. When possible, casino limits sharing of items that are difficult to clean and disinfect, such as cards, and holds items for 72 hours before reuse of these items.
  • Highest Risk: Casino and gaming operations are open at full capacity. Games that require a dealer and that allow multiple players at the same time are offered. Individuals are not spaced apart while seated or standing. Sharing of gaming materials and equipment is permitted with no restrictions.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/organizations/business-employers/casinos-gaming-operations.html

  

Meat and Poultry Facility Assessment Toolkit

CDC has made updates to the Facility Assessment Checklists which is intended for use by occupational safety and health professionals to assess a facility’s COVID-19 control plan and determine whether control measures in place align with CDC/OSHA guidance. It is suggested these steps are followed.

  • Pre-assessment: Inform all parties of the goals of the assessment. Work as a group to review the checklist to determine if each part applies to your company.
  • Walkthrough of the facility: While conducting the walkthrough of a facility, use the checklist to document what you find. Observe as much of the plant processes as possible. Limit participation to those familiar with plant processes.
  • Post-assessment: After conducting the assessment, discuss observations, develop action items, determine steps to protect workers, and prioritize actions to be taken to control and prevent the spread of COVID-19 within the workplace.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/meat-processing-assessment-tool.html

FAQs for Incarceration

Further guidance in the form of FAQs was added for administrators, staff, incarcerated people and family members.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/correction-detention/faq.html

  

Contact Tracing Workflow

CDC continues to add to its contact tracing training module including this infographic on overall contact tracing workflow.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/contact-tracing/contact-tracing-plan/contact-tracing.html

  

Forecasts for Hospitalizations

Mathematical models for predicting hospitalizations have been developed and published. Numbers and trends in new COVID-19 hospitalizations per day vary among national forecasts. This week, national forecasts from two models suggest an increase in the number of daily hospitalizations over the next four weeks, while the other four models forecast declines. Near the end of the forecast period, there may be 1,000 to 11,000 new COVID-19 hospitalizations per day. Forecasts estimate the number of new hospitalizations from a variety of data sets of COVID-19 cases or deaths. The use of different data sets, with different limitations—along with the use of different assumptions about social distancing—may result in the high variation among forecasts.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/cases-updates/hospitalizations-forecasts.html

  

Update to Guidance for Dental Settings

CDC updated these documents to support dental settings complements the following CDC guidance documents:

Summary of Recent Changes

  • The recommendation to wait 15 minutes after completion of clinical care and exit of each patient without suspected or confirmed COVID-19 to begin to clean and disinfect room surfaces has been removed to align with CDC Interim Infection Prevention and Control Recommendations for Patients with Suspected or Confirmed Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Healthcare Settings.
  • The time period recommended for patients to inform the dental clinic if they develop symptoms or are diagnosed with COVID-19 following a dental appointment has been changed to 2 days to align with CDC’s Healthcare Personnel with Potential Exposure Guidance.
  • Clarifying language has been added to Engineering Controls.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/dental-settings.html

How COVID-19 Spreads

CDC updated information page recognizing the spread of COVID-19 between animals and people. Reminder that the risk is considered low. Nevertheless, social distancing pets from person known or suspected of having COVID-19 is recommended. Further the best methods to prevent the spread are:

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/how-covid-spreads.html

  

Open Burning and Wildfire Smoke During the COVID-19 Pandemic

CDC recommends refraining from agricultural burning or backyard burning due to increased health risks. Open burning produces smoke that contains air pollutants. Exposure to these pollutants can worsen existing heart and lung conditions and have other harmful effects, including premature death. People with or recovering from COVID-19 may have diminished lung function and therefore might be at particularly high risk of respiratory health effects after exposure to smoke from open burning. While a community is experiencing community transmission of COVID-19, firefighters and other emergency services may be operating at reduced capacity and have limited resources to respond to uncontrolled fires. Health officials, environmental health professionals, fire managers are to collaborate with local authorities and consider the following actions:

  • Temporarily ban open burning
  • Promote other waste disposal options

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/openburning.html

Additional information is posted regarding wildfire smoke in the context of COVID-19.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/smoke-faq.html

  

COVIDTracer Tool 1.0

CDC developed and released a spreadsheet-based tool to allow contact tracing agencies to compare three different tracing/monitoring strategies. The tool is useful in estimating the number of personnel needed to conduct case investigations, contact tracing and case contact monitoring based on entering a set of variables. Download file and instructions here:

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/contact-tracing/COVIDTracer.html

COVID-19 Infections in Animals

At this time, there is no evidence that animals play a significant role in spreading the virus that causes COVID-19. However, animal infections have occurred.

  • A small number of pet cats and dogs have been reported to be infected with the virus in several countries, including the United States. Most of these pets became sick after contact with people with COVID-19.
  • Several lions and tigers at a New York zoo tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 after showing signs of respiratory illness. Public health officials believe these large cats became sick after being exposed to a zoo employee who was infected with SARS-CoV-2. All of these large cats have fully recovered.
  • SARS-CoV-2 was recently discovered in mink (which are closely related to ferrets) on multiple farms in the Netherlands.
  • In laboratory settings, ferrets, cats, hamsters, and numerous primates have been experimentally infected.
  • Animals that do not seem to become infected based on lab studies include mice, pigs, chickens, and ducks.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/daily-life-coping/animals.html

  

Considerations for Community-Based Organizations

CBOs can play a vital role in maintaining community morale and cohesion. They include social service agencies, nonprofit organizations, and formal and informal community groups, like neighborhood groups or recreational or special-interest clubs. CBO organizers can take steps to reduce spread of COVID-19 using these guiding principles:

  • Lowest risk: Meetings and other activities are conducted virtually. Only essential activities (i.e., provision of essential services) occur in person.
  • More risk: Small, in-person gatherings like board meetings or support groups are held. Outdoor activities and meetings are prioritized. Individuals from different households remain spaced at least 6 feet apart and do not share objects. No food is served at meetings or events. Most staff telework and if staff or stakeholders are present in a facility, they are required to wear cloth face coverings (if able) and maintain social distancing. Rigorous cleaning and disinfecting practices are implemented. Attendees at the organization’s meeting and events come from the same local geographic area (e.g., community, town, city, county).
  • Higher risk: Indoor activities are held. Medium-sized in-person gatherings are adapted to allow individuals to remain spaced at least 6 feet apart. In CBO facilities, common areas are closed, and staff are encouraged to wear cloth face coverings (if able) and maintain social distancing. Food is served in pre-packaged boxes with disposable utensils to eliminate the need for shared items or congregating around serving tables. For meetings and events, a limited number of attendees come from outside the local geographic area.
  • Highest risk: Standard operations and programming are resumed. Large in-person gatherings are held where it is difficult for individuals to remain spaced at least 6 feet apart. Food is served “potluck” or family style. Many event attendees come from outside the local geographic area.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/organizations/community-based.html

CDC Diagnostic Test Kit

CDC developed a laboratory test kit for use in testing patient specimens for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes COVID-19.

  • The test kit is called the “Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase (RT)–PCR Diagnostic Panel.”
  • CDC’s test kit is intended for use by laboratories designated by CDC as qualified and, in the United States, certified under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) to perform high-complexity tests. It is intended for use on upper and lower respiratory specimens with the Applied Biosystems 7500 Fast DX Real-Time PCR Instrument with SDS 1.4 software.
  • Since distribution of CDC test kits began, high demand for the extraction reagents needed for testing has resulted in global shortages; some public health laboratories have been unable to obtain testing reagents to support their testing volumes, resulting in testing delays. Therefore, on June 12, 2020, FDA approved an amendment to the test’s EUA to allow state public health laboratories and others the flexibility to use alternatives.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/lab/testing.html

  

How to Get CDC’s Diagnostic Test and Supplies

The CDC 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase (RT)–PCR Diagnostic Panel detects the SARS-CoV-2 virus in upper and lower respiratory specimens. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) gave Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for this test on February 4, 2020. On June 12, 2020, FDA granted an amendment to the EUA for the CDC diagnostic test to address global shortages of materials needed to perform the test. This amendment provides alternatives icon for processing the test:

  • Four additional extraction reagents that can be used in the existing extraction methods
  • An additional extraction instrument and associated reagents
  • A new process that can be used in place of the extraction method when materials for the current method are limited

The International Reagent Resource (IRR) is distributing the diagnostic panel and supplies to registered state and local public health laboratories so they can perform SARS-CoV-2 testing.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/lab/virus-requests.html

  

Consolidated Testing Recommendations

CDC has released consolidated recommendations for COVID-19 testing based on current evidence. includes a summary of current CDC recommendations for testing people who:

  • have signs or symptoms of COVID-19;
  • have no symptoms but recently had contact with someone known or suspected to have COVID-19;
  • have no symptoms and no known contact with someone known or suspected to have COVID-19 but still may be tested for early identification in special settings;
  • have had confirmed COVID-19 but no longer have symptoms; and
  • may be tested by public health officials to track spread of the virus that causes COVID-19.

Further recommendations for testing in nursing homes and long term care facilities include:

  • recommendation against testing the same individual more than once in a 24-hour period;
  • consideration for testing residents with symptoms for other causes of respiratory illness, such as influenza; and
  • coordination of repeat testing in response to outbreaks with local, territorial, and state health departments.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/testing-overview.html

Contact Tracing Communication Toolkit

CDC released expanded talking points to promote the public understanding of the importance of contact tracing. Information includes infographics, Public Service Announcement scripts, messaging targeting to the general public, people who have been diagnosed with COVID-19, close contacts of someone with COVID-19, stigma, social media posts. Much of the information is available in alternative languages.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/contact-tracing-comms.html

  

Deciding to Go Out

CDC released considerations and plan for the general public as more of the population looks for ways to resume daily activities as safely as possible. Emphasis is on staying safe personally as well as preventing contact spread of the virus. Topics covered include:

  • General consideration such as:
    • Does the activity allow for social distancing?
    • Cloth face covering
    • Regular hand hygiene
    • What is the length of time interacting with others?
  • Specifics included for going to the bank, dining at a restaurant, hosting gatherings or cook-outs, using gyms and fitness centers, nail salons, libraries, and traveling overnight.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/daily-life-coping/activities.html

  

Considerations for Events and Gatherings

As some communities in the United States begin to plan and hold events and gatherings, the CDC offers the following considerations for enhancing protection of individuals and communities and preventing spread. Event planners are to work in collaboration with state and local health officials. These recommendations are meant to supplement, not replace any local laws or rules. Considerations for levels of risk:

  • Lowest risk: Virtual-only activities, events, and gatherings.
  • More risk: Smaller outdoor and in-person gatherings in which individuals from different households remain spaced at least 6 feet apart, wear cloth face coverings, do not share objects, and come from the same local area (e.g., community, town, city, or county).
  • Higher risk: Medium-sized in-person gatherings that are adapted to allow individuals to remain spaced at least 6 feet apart and with attendees coming from outside the local area.
  • Highest risk: Large in-person gatherings where it is difficult for individuals to remain spaced at least 6 feet apart and attendees travel from outside the local area.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/large-events/considerations-for-events-gatherings.html

Event planners can find communication resources, posters, and additional guidance here:

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/large-events/index.html

  

Survey of Public Attitudes, Behaviors, and Beliefs Related to COVID-19

During May 5–12, 2020, a survey among adults in New York City and Los Angeles and broadly across the United States found widespread support of stay-at-home orders and nonessential business closures and high degree of adherence to COVID-19 mitigation guidelines. Most respondents reported that they would feel unsafe if restrictions were lifted at the time of the survey.

https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6924e1.htm?s_cid=mm6924e1_w

Wildlife Testing Guidance

For professionals working with free-living wildlife, testing may be called for in certain circumstances:

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/animals/pets-other-animals/wildlife-testing.html

  

Checklist for Communities of Faith

Communities of faith are encouraged to use this checklist to protect the health of their staff and congregants during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Checklist includes:

  • Plan and Prepare
    • Update your emergency operations plan with the help of your local public health department, emergency operations coordinator or planning team, and other relevant partners to include COVID-19 planning. Be sure to include plans on how to protect staff and congregants at higher risk for severe illness from COVID-19.
    • Designate a staff person to be responsible for responding to COVID-19 concerns. Staff and congregants should know who this person is and how to contact them if they become sick or are around others diagnosed with COVID-19. This person should also be aware of state or local regulatory agency policies related to group gatherings and other applicable state and local public health guidance and directives.
    • Identify space that can be used to separate sick people, if needed, and make plans for safely transporting them to their home or a healthcare facility, notifying the health department, and cleaning and disinfecting the facility after they have left.
    • Develop an emergency communication plan for distributing timely and accurate information to staff, congregants, and others who use your facility.
    • Identify actions to take if you need to temporarily adjust operations, and be sure to account for staff and congregants who need extra precautions.
    • Promote the practice of everyday preventive actions such as hand hygiene, frequent cleaning and sanitation.
    • Have COVID-19 prevention supplies available for staff and others who come to your facility (e.g., soap, water, hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol, tissues, no-touch trash cans). Keep a few disposable cloth face coverings in stock for those who need them.
    • Plan for staff absences by developing flexible attendance and sick-leave policies, plan for alternative coverage, and monitor and track COVID-19-related staff absences.
    • Offer support to groups of people stigmatized by COVID-19 and speak out against negative behaviors to help counter stigma and discrimination.
  • Take Action If there are people in your community who have COVID-19:
    • Stay informed about local COVID-19 information and updates; check for updates from local health and other authorities.
    • Put your emergency operations and communication plans into action, including notifying local health officials and alerting staff and congregants who may have been exposed to COVID-19.
    • Communicate with your staff, congregants, and others using your facility if you need to adjust operations.
    • Encourage staff and congregants to talk with people they trust about their concerns and how they are feeling. Consider posting signs displaying the national distress hotline: 1-800-985-5990, or text TalkWithUs to 66746.
    • Emphasize the everyday preventive actions listed above through intensified communications with staff, congregants, and others who use your facility.
    • If someone becomes sick while at your facility, separate them into an isolated room and safely transport them home or to a healthcare facility as soon as possible. Notify the health department and follow CDC guidance on cleaning and disinfecting the building where the individual was present.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/organizations/checklist.html

Updates to Lab FAQs

CDC updated FAQs for labs to include information for:

  • Accessing laboratory testing
  • Test developers
  • Serology
  • Specimen handling
  • Specimen packing and shipping
  • Anatomic pathology
  • Ordering supplies for both public health laboratories and clinical laboratories

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/lab/faqs.html

  

Using Telehealth Services

CDC released a guidance document to describe landscape of telehealth services and provide considerations for healthcare systems, practices, and providers using telehealth services to provide virtual care during and beyond the COVID-19 pandemic. Topics include:

  • Modalities: Synchronous, Asynchronous, Remote patient monitoring
  • Benefits
  • Strategies to increase telehealth uptake
  • Telehealth reimbursement
  • Safeguards & Security
  • Potential limitations
  • Resources

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/telehealth.html

Guidance for Pregnant and Breastfeeding Mothers

New information has been released for guiding neonates born to mothers with suspected or confirmed COVID-19. Targeted to inform healthcare providers about the diagnosis, evaluation, infection prevention and control practices, and disposition of neonates with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 or known COVID-19 exposure, including birth to a mother with suspected or confirmed COVID-19.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/care-for-breastfeeding-women.html

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/pregnancy-breastfeeding.html

Guidance for the Establishment and Management of Rapid Response Teams (RRT)

CDC released a guidance document to speed the time from disease detection to public health response. The document details:

  • RRT Composition: Discipline and suggested reporting structures
  • Pre-deployment processes: Briefing, just in time training and equipping the teams
  • Deployment processes: Roles by discipline including objectives, activities, deliverables, and indicators/metrics
  • Post deployment processes: Resources for returning team members including mental health and re-entry support
  • A compliment of additional resources

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/global-covid-19/rtt-management-introduction.html

  

Suggestions for Youth and Summer Camp: Sleep Away Camps

CDC added special considerations for overnight camps including:

  • Communication with families if accepting campers from various geographic regions
  • Align mats or beds so that campers and staff sleep head-to-toe at least 6 feet apart
  • Add physical barriers, such as plastic flexible screens, between bathroom sinks, between beds
  • Camp administrators, nurses, healthcare providers identify an isolation room or area to separate anyone who exhibits COVID-like symptoms
  • Establish procedures for transportation if someone becomes sick or needs to be transported
  • Apply frequent hand hygiene, cleaning and disinfection

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/schools-childcare/summer-camps.html#anchor_1589933279516

Contact Tracer’s Guide for Notification of Exposure

CDC provided scripting and action guide for contact tracers who are notifying persons with potential exposure and how to collect needed information. Guidance includes tips on language use and establishing report, extracting information, ensuring confidentiality and follow-up recommendations. Script gives principles for interactions and is broken down as follows:

  • Introduction
    • Verifying identity
    • Reason for Call
    • Confidentiality
  • Collecting locating and demographic information
    • Demographics, such as gender, alternative names
    • Location and other contacts in living situation
    • Work and other contacts
  • Health information and disease comprehension
    • Assess disease comprehension
    • Fill in knowledge gap regarding Symptoms of COVID-19
    • Underlying health conditions and other risk factors
    • Testing for COVID-19 in your area
  • Quarantine recommendations and resources
    • Home or Self quarantine
    • Assessing concerns
    • Assessing living situation
    • Assessing other supports
    • Release from quarantine
    • Disclosure coaching
  • Health monitoring and responding to changes in health status
    • Monitoring and agreement tools
    • Responding if symptoms develop
    • Medical provider
  • Conclusion
    • Check in agreements
    • Contact Tracer’s information for follow-up

The full script is available at:

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/notification-of-exposure.html

  

Interim Lab Biosafety Guidelines Update

CDC added detail to their biosafety guidelines specifically for Anatomic Pathology and Point of Care (POC) Testing.

  • Point of Care tests (useful for rapid deployment, critical care sites, etc) that operate POC diagnostic instruments must have a current Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 certificate. Temporary waivers are possible through Centers for Medicare and Medicate Services
  • Labs should consider the following when using POC instruments for SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic purpose
    • Perform risk assessments that are site and activity specific.
    • Train staff on proper use of the instrument and how to minimize risk of exposures.
    • Follow Standard Precautions when handling specimens to include hand hygiene, PPE of lab coats, gowns, gloves and eye protection. If needed additional precautions such as surgical mask or face shield or other physical barriers such as splash shield to work behind.
    • When using swabs, minimize contamination of the swab stick and wrapper by widely opening the wrapper prior to placing the swab back into the wrapper.
    • Change gloves after adding patient specimens to the instrument.
    • Decontaminate the instrument after each run by using an EPA-approved disinfectant for SARS-CoV-2. Following the manufacturer’s recommendations for use, such as dilution, contact time, and safe handling.
  • Anatomic Pathology refers to surgical pathology, histotechnology cytology and autopsy.

Additional details available here:

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-nCoV/lab/lab-biosafety-guidelines.html

Additionally, the Biosafety FAQs were updated:

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/lab/biosafety-faqs.html

  

Public Health Guidance Update

CDC updated guidance for community related exposure regarding people with confirmed COVID-19 who have not had any symptoms.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/public-health-recommendations.html

  

Published Gene Sequences for Research

CDC updated the web page to list Real-time RT-PCR Pimers and Probes to be used for viral testing with the CDC 2019-nCoV Diagnostic Panel.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/lab/rt-pcr-panel-primer-probes.html

Lab Test Reporting Requirements

CDC released requirements for reporting for data submission to Health and Human Services (HHS)/CDC under the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economics Security Act. Details are in the document (attached), highlights include:

  • All entities performing testing must report results within 24 hours of results being known
  • Methods for submission through state and local public health departments
  • Required data elements include type of test ordered, results, patient demographics. Local public health agencies may collect identifying information, but are not to pass it along to HHS/CDC.
  • Data reporting and transmission requires electronic data submission using Health Level 7 laboratory reporting and are in compliance with ONC 2015 Edition certification criteria, and structured in accordance with the US Core Data for Interoperability (USCDI) when available or possible.

https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2020/p0604-new-lab-data-reporting.html

  

Guidance for Handlers of Service and Therapy Animals

CDC added guidance for Persons using service animals (such as guide dogs for those with low or no vision) and suggests facilities that normally use therapy animals may not allow them at this time because people within the settings are typically at higher risk for serious illness with COVID-19.

  • Maintain social distancing for the animal as well as you would for human contact.
  • Cleaning and disinfecting collars, leashes, vest, etc. should be done frequently.
  • Do not wipe or bathe service animals with chemical disinfectants, alcohol, hydrogen peroxide, or other products not approved for animal use.
  • Do not use cloth face coverings on animals.
  • There is no evidence that the virus can spread to people from the skin, fur or hair of pets.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/animals/service-therapy-animals.html

  

Racial and Ethnic Minority Groups

CDC updated a statement recognizing that racial and ethnic minority are affected in greater numbers, with worse outcomes than the general population. The differences are often due to economic and social conditions that are more common among some racial and ethnic minorities. Including living conditions, work circumstances, underlying health conditions, and lower access to healthcare. Public health professionals and community organizers can reduce the effect by:

  • Ensuring communications about COVID-19 is frequent, clear, credible, and in easily understood language
  • Work with sectors such as faith community education, business, transportation and housing organizations to share information and strategies.
  • Link more people among racial and ethnic minority groups to healthcare services
  • Provide information for healthcare professionals and health systems
  • Use evidence-based strategies to reduce health disparities

Healthcare systems and providers can support by:

  • Implementing standard protocols
  • Identify and address implicit bias
  • Provide medical interpretation services
  • Reduce cultural barriers to care
  • Connect patients with community resources
  • Learn about social and economic conditions that may put some patients at higher risk

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/racial-ethnic-minorities.html

Additional Resources for Contact Tracing

CDC continues to bolster the resources available for contact tracing with the following additional resources for entities performing contact tracing:

  • Contact tracing communication toolkit with infographics and social media posts
  • Checklists for developing a COVID-19 Case Investigation and Contact Tracing Plan (view here)
  • Additional resources external to the CDC are listed such as Contract Tracing playbooks, digital tools, steps to transitioning to less activity restrictions

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/open-america/contact-tracing-resources.html

  

Updated FAQs for Schools and Childcare Programs

Information regarding the use of breathing treatments, or metered dose inhaler was posted in the Frequently asked questions. Although data is limited, it is suggested that students are permitted to use a personal inhaler instead of a stock inhaler. If personal inhalers are not available, use disposable spacer/smouthpieces and nebulizers with disposable tubing. Cleaning and disinfection between uses is required.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/schools-childcare/schools-faq.html

   

Infographic for Workplace, School, Home Guidance

CDC released an infographic to educate/remind the population on techniques to keep decrease the spread of COVID-19. General information is presented for the workplace, schools, in the home, and commercial establishments.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/downloads/workplace-school-and-home-guidance.pdf

Agriculture Workers and Employers

CDC and Dept. of Labor issued updated guidance for to reduce the spread of COVID-19 in agriculture workers. The guidance recommends that owners and operators:

  • Screen agricultural workers for coronavirus symptoms, manage workers who have symptoms upon arrival at work or who become sick during the day, and address return to work after worker exposure;
  • Use touch-free clocks and automatic doors, install plastic barriers when distances of six feet between individuals are not possible, and rearrange chairs and tables in break areas;
  • Implement cleaning, disinfection, and sanitation protocols;
  • Train workers in a language they understand on the signs and symptoms of coronavirus, proper infection control and social distancing practices, and what to do if they or a coworker experience symptoms;
  • Encourage workers to use cloth face coverings in certain circumstances (e.g., when utilizing shared methods of transportation); and
  • Provide and train workers on proper use of personal protective equipment through videos or in-person visual demonstrations.
  • The guidance also explains what employers should do to prevent transmission of the virus among workers who share housing and transportation to and from the agricultural worksite.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/guidance-agricultural-workers.html

  

Updated Guidance if You Have Pets

CDC is reporting that a number of pets worldwide, including cats and dogs, have been infected with the virus that causes COVID-19, mostly after close contact with people with COVID-19.

  • Based on the limited information available to date, the risk of animals spreading COVID-19 to people is considered to be low.
  • It appears that the virus that causes COVID-19 can spread from people to animals in some situations.
  • Treat pets as you would other human family members – do not let pets interact with people outside the household.
  • If a person inside the household becomes sick, isolate that person from everyone else, including pets.
  • There is no evidence that the virus can spread to people from the skin, fur, or hair of pets. Do not wipe or bathe your pet with chemical disinfectants, alcohol, hydrogen peroxide, or any other products not approved for animal use.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/daily-life-coping/pets.html

  

Clinical symptoms details Updated for Clinicians

CDC updated incubation period and symptom percentages based on evidence as follows:

  • The incubation period for COVID-19 is thought to extend to 14 days, with a median time of 4-5 days from exposure to symptoms onset. One study reported that 97.5% of persons with COVID-19 who develop symptoms will do so within 11.5 days of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
  • The signs and symptoms of COVID-19 present at illness onset vary, but over the course of the disease, most persons with COVID-19 will experience the following:
    • Fever (83–99%)
    • Cough (59–82%)
    • Fatigue (44–70%)
    • Anorexia (40–84%)
    • Shortness of breath (31–40%)
    • Sputum production (28–33%)
    • Myalgia (11–35%)

Clinician On-Call Center

The Clinician On-Call Center is a 24-hour hotline with trained CDC clinicians standing by to answer COVID-19 questions from healthcare personnel on a wide range of topics, such as diagnostic challenges, clinical management, and infection prevention and control. To reach this service, call 800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636) and ask for the Clinician On-Call Center.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/index.html

  

Seroprevalence Testing in Georgia

As part of determining population antibody presence, CDC Teams visited randomly selected homes within randomly selected blocks in the Atlanta Metro area in late April and early May 2020. They completed surveys and collected blood samples from consenting household members. Blood samples were sent to the CDC laboratory and are being tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/cases-updates/community-level-seroprevalence-surveys.html#Georgia

CDC Summarizes Resources and Support Provided

Two infographics were released showing the category and details of the resources and support provided by the CDC. The first (view here) demonstrates how CDC has taken steps protecting the population in regards to travel, schools, businesses, community, healthcare professionals, healthcare systems, and laboratory diagnostics. The second (view here) highlights some of the people involved in the research and as well as the use of data.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/cases-updates/cdc-in-action.html

Large-scale Geographic Seroprevalence Surveys

CDC has begun testing the population for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in multiple areas starting in Washington state and New York City Metro. Goal of the testing is to determine the level of exposure throughout the population that is not detected through symptomatic virus testing alone. Results will be updated regularly.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/cases-updates/geographic-seroprevalence-surveys.html

  

Contract Tracing Window Reduced

The contact elicitation window for asymptomatic cases was changed from 10 days before obtaining the specimen that tested positive for COVID-19 to 2 days. Additionally, recent data suggests that asymptomatic persons may have a lower viral burden at diagnosis compared to symptomatic cases. Thus, the longer contact elicitation window (beginning 10 days prior to specimen collection) may have limited impact in identification of new COVID-19 cases. This time period is also now in alignment with WHO, European CDC, and Public Health Canada.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/open-america/contact-tracing-resources.html

Meat Processing Facility Assessment Toolkit

CDC released tools and resources for safety professionals based on the interim guidance from CDC and OSHA for meat and poultry processing. Two checklists were released:

  • A checklist intended for use by occupational safety and health professionals to assess a facility’s COVID-19 control plan (view here).
  • A checklist intended for state and local health officials to assess COVID-19 infection prevention and control measures in meat and poultry processing facilities (view here).

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/meat-processing-assessment-tool.html

  

Employers with Workers at Higher Risk

As business scale up and resume operations, employers with workers at higher risk may need to take special precautions to reduce exposure risk to these employees. Employers should take particiular care to reduce workers’ risk of exposure to COVID-19, while making sure to be compliant with relevant Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) regulations. These actions are for considerations in a three step scale-up:

  • In all steps:
    • Protect employees at higher risk for severe illness by supporting and encouraging options to telework.
    • Consider offering workers at higher risk duties that minimize their contact with customers and other employees (e.g., restocking shelves rather than working as a cashier), if agreed to by the worker.
  • Step 1: Scale up only if business can ensure strict social distancing, proper cleaning and disinfecting requirements, and protection of their workers and customers; workers at higher risk for severe illness are recommended to shelter in place.
  • Step 2: Scale up only if business can ensure moderate social distancing, proper cleaning and disinfecting requirements, and protection of their workers and customers; workers at higher risk for severe illness are recommended to shelter in place.
  • Step 3: Scale up only if business can ensure limited social distancing, proper cleaning and disinfecting requirements, and protection of their workers and customers.

  

Guidance for Ending Home Isolation

CDC added guidance for healthcare practitioners regarding management of persons who may have prolonged viral shedding after recovery. Essentially, data are lacking for infectious potential of individuals recovering after symptoms. Even though they may have positive viral RNA Test, the best available evidence suggests that most persons recovered from illness with detectable viral RNA (either persistent or recurrent) are likely no longer infectious, but conclusive evidence is not currently available.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/disposition-in-home-patients.html

  

Assisted Care Facilities to Refer to Local Health Authorities

CDC updated guidance for Assisted Living Facilities to refer to guidance from state and local officials when making decisions about relaxing restrictions (e.g. easing visitor restrictions, allowing group activities, or restoring communal dining.)

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/assisted-living.html

Sanitation and Wastewater Workers

Recently, SARS-CoV-2 has been found in untreated wastewater. While data are limited there is no information to date that anyone has become sick with COVID-19 because of exposure to wastewater. Standard practices for wastewater treatment plant operations should be sufficient to protect wastewater workers from exposure.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/sanitation-wastewater-workers.html

  

Bars and Restaurants to Consider Legionnaires’ Disease

CDC added guidance for restaurants and bars that are reopening after prolonged facility shutdown to minimize the risk of legionnaires’ disease. Water systems and features at risk include sink faucets, decorative fountains, drinking fountains.

  

Using Antibody Tests

CDC has developed interim guidance for how healthcare providers, laboratories, and public health staff should use antibody tests. These tests look for the presence of antibodies, which are proteins made in response to infections. Antibodies are detected in the blood of people who are tested after infection; they show the body’s efforts to fight off a specific infection.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/lab/resources/antibody-tests.html

And antibody testing at-a-glance recommendations for professionals.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/lab/resources/antibody-tests-professional.html

Employer Information for Office Buildings

CDC released guidance steps to prevent spread and exposure to COVID-19 while resuming business operations. Steps include:

  • Check the building’s readiness for occupancy
    • HVAC functioning properly? Follow procedures for new construction startup if ASHRAE Standard 180-2018 if needed.
    • Increase circulation of outdoor air as much as possible.
    • Evaluate mechanical and life safety systems.
    • Check for hazards such as mold growth, rodents or pests, legionella in stagnant water systems.
  • Identify where and how workers might be exposed
  • Develop hazard controls using the hierarchy of controls
    • Engineering/isolation from the hazard such as barriers, arranging furniture for social distancing.
    • Administrative controls such as staggered work shifts, increased cleaning & disinfection schedule.
    • Educate employees and supervisors.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/office-buildings.html

  

Living in Close Quarters

CDC released guidance to reduce the spread for those living in close quarters. Actions include:

  • Limiting errands,
  • having vulnerable household members avoid caring for children and those who are sick,
  • and separating a household member who is sick

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/daily-life-coping/living-in-close-quarters.html  

When to End Isolation

CDC updated and simplified their recommendations as to when people can be around others after having had (or suspected) COVID-19. A person can be around others after:

  • 3 days with no fever AND
  • Symptoms improved AND
  • 10 days since symptoms first appeared

If a person tested positive for COVID-19 but had no symptoms they can be around others after:

  • 10 days have passed since the test

If a person was exposed to another person with COVID-19 they can be around others:

  • 14 days after exposure

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/if-you-are-sick/end-home-isolation.html

  

Case Investigation & Contact Tracing Guidance

CDC released a 56 page document detailing Case Investigation and Contact Tracing Guidance. Sections include:

  • Scaling up Staffing and Roles
  • Training outlines
  • When to initiate an investigation
  • Investigating a case
  • Contact tracing
  • Outbreak investigations
  • Building community support
  • Data management
  • Confidentiality and consent
  • Digital contact tracing tools

All content is available on web as well: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/contact-tracing/contact-tracing-plan/overview.html

  

Audio PSAs Available

CDC has released a number of Audio Public Service Announcements for those entities that use audio for communications.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/communication/public-service-announcements.html

Recommendations for Communities of Faith

CDC released a statement regarding re-opening communities of faith. Because there are several published reports of COVID-19 outbreaks sparked by large gatherings, CDC urges faith leaders to work with state, tribal, local, and territorial leaders to provide technical assistance and resources that can support the decisions to protect health and prevent the spread of COVID-19 that is consistent with the free exercise rights of people of faith. FAQs were updated and republished.

https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2020/s0522-cdc-releases-recommendations-faith.html

  

Antibody Testing

The CDC has developed and manufactured a serological based test kit and is evaluating the use of commercial test kits.

  • CDC does not recommend using antibody testing to diagnose acute infection as they are designed for population level surveillance to determine the patterns of spread and antibodies most commonly become detectable 1-3 weeks after symptom onset.
  • It is not yet clear if the presence of antibodies means an individual is immune from re-infection.
  • Individuals wanting testing should communicate with their health care provider. Results can be interpreted in combination with viral testing using this table.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/lab/resources/antibody-tests-guidelines.html

Rodent Control

As restaurants have suspended operations, rodents that have relied on their waste for food have begun to search for new sources. There have been reports of unusual or aggressive rodent behavior. Rats and mice can spread over 35 diseases. After natural disasters rodent populations decline, then rebound as commercial activities resume. CDC has a host of rodent control resources and in simple terms recommends these actions:

  • Seal up holes inside and outside a residence or structure to prevent entry
  • Trap up rodents around the home to reduce the population
  • Clean up rodent food sources and nesting sites

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/rodents.html

  

Dental Settings Update

CDC updated their recommendations to dental settings:

  • Recommendations are provided for resuming non-emergency dental care during the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • New information is included regarding facility and equipment considerations, sterilization and disinfection, and considerations for the use of test-based strategies to inform patient care.
  • Expanded recommendations for provision of dental care to both patients with COVID-19 and patients without COVID-19.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/dental-settings.html

Media Release of “Opening America” Resources

CDC aggregated resources (all previously reported in this daily update) aggregating decision trees and tools for resuming civic and commercial activities. Resources include:

https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2020/s0520-cdc-resources-open.html

  

Pandemic Planning Scenarios for Mathematic Modeling

CDC and Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response have developed 5 COVID-19 Pandemic Planning. Models developed using the data provided in the planning scenarios can help evaluate the potential effects of different community mitigation strategies (e.g., social distancing). The planning scenarios may also be useful to hospital administrators in assessing resource needs and can be used in conjunction with the COVID-19 Surge Tool.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/planning-scenarios.html

  

Travelers Prohibited From Entry into the US

Several Presidential proclamations established restrictions on the entry of certain travelers into the US in an effort to help slow the spread of COVID-19. With specific exceptions, foreign nationals who have been in any of the following countries during the past 14 days may not enter the United States:

  • China
  • Iran
  • European Schengen Area
  • United Kingdom
  • Republic of Ireland

Exceptions do apply, and people meeting those exceptions will be allowed to enter through one of 13 airports.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/travelers/from-other-countries.html

  

Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) Information for Parents

MIS-C is a condition in children where body parts can become inflamed included the heart, lungs, kidneys, brain, skin, eyes, or gastrointestinal organs. It seems to be related to same virus that causes COVID-19. Most children recover with medical care.

  • Symptoms include fever, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, neck pain, rash, bloodshot eyes, fatigue
  • Seek emergency care if trouble breathing, pain in chest that does not go away, new confusion, inability to wake or stay awake, bluish lips or face, severe abdominal pain
  • Best method to prevent MIS-C is to prevent child from getting COVID-19

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/daily-life-coping/children/mis-c.html

  

How to Report Lab Data

Data collection is critical to the COVID-19 response.

  • All state public health labs and select large commercial labs that currently report directly to CDC should continue sending those data.
  • Hospital labs should submit their data via electronic message to state or large local health department
  • Standardized codes and case definitions are critical to aggregating data

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/lab/reporting-lab-data.html

  

Publications About COVID-19 for Labs

CDC posted the following studies and publications to assist labs in the processes:

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/lab/publications.html

Considerations for Restaurants and Bars

These guidelines are not to replace local and state health official recommendations. Transmission risks increasing as follows:

  • Lowest risk: Food service limited to drive-through, delivery, take-out, and curbside pick-up.
  • More risk: Drive-through, delivery, take-out, and curbside pick-up emphasized. On-site dining limited to outdoor seating. Seating capacity reduced to allow tables to be spaced at least 6 feet apart.
  • Even more risk: On-site dining with both indoor and outdoor seating. Seating capacity reduced to allow table to be spaced at least 6 feet apart.
  • Highest risk: On-site dining with both indoor and outdoor seating, seating capacity NOT reduced, tables NOT spaced at least 6 feet apart.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/organizations/business-employers/bars-restaurants.html

  

Consideration for Youth Sports and Programs

Administrators of programs are to consult with state and local health officials and make adjustments at the local level. Risk of COVID-19 spread increases as follows:

  • Lowest risk: Performing skill building drills or conditioning at home
  • Increasing risk: Team-based practice
  • More risk: Within-team competition
  • Even more risk: Full competition between teams from same local geographic area
  • Highest risk: Full competition between teams from different geographic areas

Administrators and coaches can assess risk based on the way sports are played, equipment is shared and are advised to consider:

  • Physical closeness of the players and length of time players are close to each other
  • Amount of necessary touching of shared equipment and gear (i.e. bats, racquets, water bottles, etc.)
  • Ability to engage in social distancing while not engaged in play (i.e. during practice, on the sideline)
  • Age of the athlete (older may be better able to follow directions for social distancing)
  • Team size
  • Travel

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/schools-childcare/youth-sports.html

  

Children Schools, Camps and Care Centers

Additional guidance and infographics were released for supporting children’s schools, camps and care centers. The risk for COVID-19 spread increases in youth camp settings as follows:

  • Lowest risk: Small groups of campers stay together all day each day and are able to social distance without sharing objects. All campers from local geographic area.
  • More risk: Campers mix between groups but able to social distance, still from same geographic area
  • Even more risk: Campers mix between groups, do not social distance
  • Greatest risk: Campers mix between groups and are NOT from the local geographic area

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/schools-childcare/summer-camps.html

  

Considerations for Institutes of Higher Education (IHE)

Administrators are to collaborate with state and local health officials and make use of these guiding principles for general settings:

  • Lowest risk: Faculty and students engage in virtual only learning options, activities and events
  • More risk: Small in-person classes, activities and events, individuals able to social distance, and do not share objects
  • Highest risk: Full-sized in-person classes, activities and events with inability to social distance and sharing materials, supplies, and other objects

For on-campus housing settings risk increases as follows:

  • Lowest risk: Residence halls are closed
  • More risk: Residence halls are open at lower capacity and shared spaces (kitchens & common areas) are closed
  • Highest risk: Residence halls are open at full capacity including shared spaces

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/colleges-universities/considerations.html

Visiting Parks and Recreational Facilities

Released guide for visiting parks and recreational facilities. Recommendations are to:

  • Visit parks close to home
  • Prepare before the visit (check openings with local authorities/facility managers)
  • Stay at least 6 feet away from others
  • DO NOT visit parks if you are sick or recently exposed to COVID-19
  • DO NOT visit crowded parks
  • DO NOT use playgrounds
  • DO NOT participate in organized activities or sports

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/daily-life-coping/visitors.html

  

Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Delivers Funding to Expand Testing Capacity for States, Territories, Tribes

HHS is providing $11B in new funding to support testing for COVID-19. Funding from the Paycheck Protection Program and Health Care Enhancement Act is designed to provide critical support to develop, purchase, administer, process, and analyze COVID-19 tests, conduct surveillance, trace contacts and related activities.

https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2020/p0518-hhs-funding-expand-testing-states.html

  

Framework for Healthcare Systems Providing Non-COVID-19 Clinical Care During the Pandemic

Updated strategies for non-COVID-19 healthcare to minimize chances for exposure with patients with confirmed or suspected COVID-19.

  • The prior recommendation that all elective procedures be postponed has been removed

Key considerations for performing non-COVID-19 clinical care during the COVID-19 pandemic, including potential for patient harm if care is deferred and level of community transmission, are summarized in the Framework for Healthcare Systems Providing Non-COVID-19 Clinical Care During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/framework-non-COVID-care.html

COVID-19 Serology Surveillance Strategy

Serology (antibody) testing will be deployed for widespread pandemic surveillance. Serology testing uses blood and can indicate if somebody has previously been infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus whether they showed symptoms or not. It may take 1-3 weeks after initial infection to show a positive test, so it is not a good measure to determine if an individual has been infected. CDC’s strategy to find how the virus is spreading through the US population. It is not known if the presence of antibodies (positive test) means immunity at this point. CDC will be gathering results in the following patters:

  • Large Scale Geographic where CDC will gather results from practitioners who may be sampling blood that was collected for other reasons (e.g. routine cholesterol test) to understand how the virus is spreading in a large area. Sampled individuals remain anonymous.
  • Community level surveys where public health practitioners may sample a population at a town or community level.
  • Special populations for example pregnant women or healthcare workers maybe sampled.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/covid-data/serology-surveillance/index.html

  

CDC Activities and Initiatives Supporting the COVID-19 Response and the President’s Plan for Opening America Up Again

Updated report on activities to support the reopening of America.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/downloads/php/CDC-Activities-Initiatives-for-COVID-19-Response.pdf

Updated Research Supporting the Use of Cloth Face Coverings for Asymptomatic or Pre-Symptomatic Individuals

The virus can spread between people interacting in close proximity. Seven published studies support the use of cloth face coverings. The studies are listed here:

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/cloth-face-cover.html

  

Updated Checklist for Homeless Service Providers During Community Re-Opening

Checklists include:

  • Coordination with local and state health departments
  • Placing posters strategically to provide instruction on handwashing, cough etiquette, social distancing, etc.
  • Support staff regarding job stress and coping
  • Enact prevention strategies for clients and staff
  • Continue to connect clients to care
  • Continue additional precautions for clients and staff who are at higher risk for severe ill

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/homeless-service-providers.html  

Guidance for Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C)*

In rare cases, patients under 21 years may have multiple organ inflammation weeks after SARS-CoV-2 infection. There are currently no specific drugs approved by the FDA therefore treatment is to focus on support and management of complications.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/pediatric-hcp.html

*MIS-C is referred to by ECDC as Pediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrom or PIMS.

  

Updated Animal Testing Guidance and Recommendations for Priorities

Key points include:

  • Routine testing of animals for SARS-CoV-2 is not recommended.
  • The decision to test an animal (including companion animals, livestock, and wild or zoo animals) should be agreed upon using a One Health approach between appropriate local, state, and/or federal public health and animal health officials.
  • Veterinarians are strongly encouraged to rule out other, more common causes of illness in animals before considering SARS-CoV-2 testing.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/animal-testing.html

  

Contact Tracing Training for Case Investigators Document

Outline takes participants through:

  • Identifying strategies to reduce the spread of COVID-19
  • Components of COVID-19 case investigation
  • Requirements for protecting health information
  • COVID-19 case investigation protocol
  • Application to real life scenarios

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/contact-tracing/index.html

People Who Are at Higher Risk for Severe Illness

Updated list of conditions that are high risk for severe illness, in addition to previously listed conditions, the list now includes:

  • People with preexisting serious heart conditions
  • And added to examples of immunocompromised conditions; cancer treatment, smoking, bone marrow or organ transplantation, immune deficiencies, poorly controlled HIV or AIDS, prolonged use of corticosteroids and other immune weakening medications

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/people-at-higher-risk.html

  

FAQs for Wildland Firefighters

FAQs for wildland firefighters were added including guidance such as:

  • Isolate as a unit if possible
  • Allow for social distancing upon arrival to duty station for 14 days if possible
  • Encourage self-monitoring for symptoms, consider daily temperature checks and symptom screening
  • Many of the CDC’s COVID-19 Guidance for shared or congregate housing applies to fire camps

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/wildland-firefighters-faq.html?deliveryName=USCDC_2067-DM28404

  

Financial Resources

Financial resources are being made available to support COVID-19 response. New funding added to already existing funding includes:

  • $10.25B to state, local and territorial health departments for detection, response and prevention through Paycheck Protection Program
  • $631M to 64 jurisdictions distributed through existing network of Epidemiology and Laboratory Capacity cooperative agreement through CARES Act

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/open-america/financial-resources.html

  

Downloadable Videos

Video library was updated to include or update content on:

  • Prevention and Symptoms (20 videos)
  • Nursing Home (1 video)
  • Public/Private sector (5 call recordings
  • Travel (7 videos)
  • Spanish (21 videos)
  • American Sign Language (18 videos)
  • Ad Council (3 videos)
  • CDC Briefing room (3 videos)

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/communication/downloadable-videos.html

  

Schools and Child Care Programs

Decision tools for child care, youth programs and caps, and school reopening were posted along with other resources for k-12 schools to:

  • Plan, prepare and respond
  • FAQs for Administrators
  • Checklist for teachers & Parents

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/schools-childcare/index.html

COVID-19 Testing by Laboratories: Q&A

FAQs for Labs were updated to include information on:

  • How to access lab testing
  • Specific instructions for test developers
  • Ordering supplies such as swabs, regents, PCR assays

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/lab/testing-laboratories.html

  

CDC Environmental Health Practitioners Webpage

An information page targeting Environmental Health Practitioners was published. Topics include:

  • Management at congregate facilities and shelters
    • General population disaster shelters
    • Correctional and detention facilities
    • Retirement and independent living facilities
    • Childcare programs that remain open
    • Cooling centers
    • Cleaner Air shelters and spaces
    • Parks and recreational facilities
  • Cleaning and disinfection
    • Reopening guidance for public spaces, workplaces, businesses, schools, and
    • Community facilities
    • Households
  • Food safety
    • For grocery & food retail workers
    • Meat and poultry processing
    • Food poisoning prevention
  • Water Safety
    • Water & COVID-19 FAQs
    • Building water systems
    • Public pools, hot tubs, water playgrounds during COVID-19
  • Solid Waste & Debris
    • Lab waste
    • Environmental infection control

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/eh-practitioners.html

  

CDC Staffing Resources

New staffing resources were added to complement of human resources to assist local health departments with COVID-19 responses. A fact sheet illustrates organizations available to provide staffing support including:

  • Americorp
  • State Service Commission
  • CDC staffing
  • FEMA

Additional guidance is posted.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/open-america/staffing.html

  

Contact Tracing

Contact tracing training, training plans, and digital tools were updated and released. A 64 page contact tracing plan template and guidance was published. Additional tools are provided for non-governmental organizations and academia.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/open-america/contact-tracing.html

  

Management of Healthcare Workers Exposed to or with Suspected or Confirmed COVID-19: Non-US Healthcare Settings

Updates were added to managing exposed healthcare workers in non-US healthcare settings. Includes a flow chart for management of healthcare workers with exposure.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/non-us-settings/public-health-management-hcw-exposed.html

  

Guidance on Unsheltered Homelessness and Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) for Service Providers and Local Officials

CDC Provided update to interim guidance on people experiencing unsheltered homelessness. Changes include:

  • Emphasis on whole community approach
  • Clarification of outreach staff guidance
  • Clarification of encampment guidance

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/homeless-shelters/unsheltered-homelessness.html

  

COVID-19 National Death Forecast Models

National Death Forecast models were updated.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/covid-data/forecasting-us.html

Resource Page for Manufacturing Workers and Employers

Facilities are to develop infection control plans for continuing operations in the setting of COVID-19 and should:

  • Work directly with appropriate state and local public health officials and occupational safety and health professionals
  • Incorporate relevant aspects of CDC guidance, including but not limited to CDC’s Critical Infrastructure Guidance; and
  • Incorporate guidance from other authoritative sources or regulatory bodies as needed.

Workers exposure risk should be kept to a minimum, factors affecting risk in workplaces include:

  • Distance between workers
  • Duration of contact
  • Type of contact (droplet exposure and contact w/ contaminated surfaces)

Additional resources for employers are available on the page such as guidance for:

  • Cloth face coverings
  • Educational posters and materials
  • Cleaning and disinfection
  • Screening workers
  • Managing sick workers
  • PPE

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/guidance-manufacturing-workers-employers.html

  

List of Respirators Tested by the National Personal Protective Technology Laboratory

Various commercially available Filtering Facepieces were tested for efficiency by NIOSH standard testing procedure (STP) TEB-APR-STP-0059 and found minimum efficiency ranging from 11.2-99.83% and maximum ranging from 33.90-100%. A list showing specific products tested and associated efficiencies can be found here:

https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npptl/respirators/testing/NonNIOSHresults.html

  

Spreadsheet Estimator Tool for COVID-19 Demand for Hospital Based Services

Download COVID-19Surge here, and FAQs can be found here:

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/faq.html

  

FAQs for Healthcare Practitioners

Topics covered include:

  • Risk
  • Transmission
  • Testing and Diagnosis
  • Treatment and Management
  • Obstetrical Care
  • Drug Therapies
  • Patients with Asthma
  • Patients with Liver Disease
  • Patients with Hypertension
  • Waste Management

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/faq.html

  

Pediatrics and Child Healthcare Updates

Highlights include:

  • It is suggested to maintain vaccinations, and reach out to children who have missed vaccinations due to quarantine.
  • Clinics should attempt to separate well baby/child check-ups from sick child care.
  • COVID-19 in children is generally mild where in one study of 2000 pediatric patients only 5% had severe symptoms and 0.6% had critical respiratory failure.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/pediatric-hcp.html

  

Updated Guidance on What To Do If Your Pet Gets Sick

  • If your pet tests positive, isolate the pet from everyone else, including other pets.
  • Do not wipe or bathe your pet with chemical disinfectants, alcohol, hydrogen peroxide, or any other products not approved for animal use.
  • Only a few pets have been confirmed to be infected with the virus that causes COVID-19. Some pets did not show any signs of illness, but those pets that did get sick all had mild disease that could be taken care of at home. None have died from the infection.
  • If you suspect COVID-19, call a veterinarian first.
  • Pets with confirmed infection with the virus that causes COVID-19 should be restricted to isolation in the home until a veterinarian or public health official has determined that they can be around other pets and people.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/daily-life-coping/positive-pet.html

Factors to Consider When Planning to Purchase Respirators

Considerations for purchasing respirators from another country guidelines were issued by the CDC. During the current PPE shortage, products are on the market that do not meet FDA standard requirements, or the FDA’s Emergency Use Authorization. Three most common problems are:

  • Documents are altered so the Filtering Facepiece Respirators (FFR) appear to comply with a standard, but they do not.
  • Certifications marks are counterfeit
  • Manufactures’ names, logos, and model numbers are counterfeit
    Factors for purchasers
  • Evaluate the device, if possible, with samples for filtration, fit, head/harness design
  • Evaluate the manufacturer and seller to determine if devices tested in an ISO/IEC 17025 accredited lab, vet all contact information with dated photos and videos of the models being purchased, investigate the financial strength of US intermediary
  • Evaluate the contract: KN95 FFRs are approximately $2-$3/unit, if paying more likely overpaying, if paying less product may be suspect. (as of this printing 5/12/2020). Do no pre-pay. Establish provisions to protect your purchase such as financially guarantee the authenticity of the products.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/ppe-strategy/international-respirator-purchase.html

  

Managing Workplace Fatigue

Tactics for workers and employers to manage workplace fatigue were issued by the CDC. Under regular circumstances adults need 7-9 hours of sleep per night, along with opportunities for rest while awake. Lacking these can lead to fatigue which increases risk for injury, deteriorating health, and effectiveness at job tasks. General strategies for workers:

  • Recognize in more stressful circumstances, more sleep may be needed to recover
  • Optimal sleep happens in a dark, cool quiet room
  • If it takes longer that 15 minutes to fall asleep, then set aside time before bedtime to aid relaxation (such as meditating, deep breathing, progressive muscle relaxation)
  • Before beginning a long stretch of shifts try “banking your sleep” by getting extra hours longer than typical
  • After a long stretch of shifts, it may take several days of extended sleep to recover
  • Avoid sunlight or bright lights 90 minutes before attempting sleep if possible
  • Naps of 90 minutes before working a night shift can reduce feeling tired at work
  • Eat healthy foods and stay physically active
  • Before going to sleep avoid foods and drinks that make sleeping more difficult such as alcohol, heavy meals, caffeine, nicotine.

General strategies for Employers:

  • Create culture of safety with clear communication between management and workers.
  • Recognize signs of fatigue (e.g. yawning, difficulty keeping eyes open, inability to concentrate)
    • The Epworth Sleepiness Scale is a short survey that can be posted for workers to quickly rate their fatigue.
    • Create a non-punitive method for reporting when workers or colleagues are too fatigued to work safely.
  • Develop a process to relieve a worker from their duties if too fatigued to work safely, such as these if possible:
    • Assign workers just starting their shifts safety critical tasks
    • Rotate workers or groups through tasks that are repetitive and/or strenuous (clean and disinfect between workers)
    • Schedule physically or mentally demanding workloads in shorter shifts and/or during day
  • Educate workers on sleep deprivation recognition and remedies
  • Allow adequate off-duty time to meeting obligations and sufficient rest and recovery
  • Rotating shift work should rotate forward
  • Avoid shifts of 12 hours if possible
  • Provide alternative transportation

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/managing-workplace-fatigue.html

  

Funeral Guidance for Individuals and Families

CDC Released funeral guidance for individuals and families. People continue to get exposed to COVID-19 at funerals by attendees who were not feeling sick. Considerations when making funeral arrangements:

  • People who have died form COVID-19 can be buried or cremated, no need to change the wishes of the deceased.
  • No need to delay funeral services due to COVID-19, unless scheduling with funeral service providers requires due to a large number of deaths.
  • There is currently no known risk associated with being in same room at a funeral service or visitation with the body of a deceased person who had COVID-19 after the body has been prepared for viewing.
  • Some traditional funeral practices that require touching the body may need to be changed.

Considerations for during the funeral:

  • Hold modified funerals by limiting attendance to a small number of immediate family members and friends, and an additional memorial service in the future when social distancing guidelines are less restrictive.
  • Attempt virtual funeral services, visitations, and memorial tributes by on-line video streaming if possible?
  • Hold services and gatherings in a large, well-ventilated area or outdoors, as circumstances and traditions allow
  • On-line guestbooks or memory books
  • Attendees should nod, bow, or wave instead of holding or shaking hands, hugging, or kissing
  • Space seating 6 feed apart for attendees who do not live in the same household
  • Those who are sick, or have a household member or close contact who is sick, or at higher risk of severe illness should NOT attend in person

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/daily-life-coping/funeral-guidance.html

  

Interim Laboratory Biosafety Guidelines

CDC Updated Lab Biosafety recommendations for point of care testing. Labs are to:

  • Perform site specific and activity specific risk assessments
  • Follow standard precautions (hand hygiene, PPE of lab coats, gowns, gloves, eye protection), routine lab practices for decontamination
  • Test in BioSafety Level 2 lab settings

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-nCoV/lab/lab-biosafety-guidelines.html

  

Healthcare Infection Prevention and Control FAQs

CDC Healthcare Infection Prevention FAQs added recommendations for behavioral health and psychiatric hospitals. Facilities can tailor certain recommendations to their setting (i.e. not using alcohol-based hand sanitizer in drug and alcohol treatment facilities). Challenges and potential solutions on topics include cohorting, group therapy sessions, cloth face coverings, dining, and smoking.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/infection-control-faq.html

CDC Guidance on Interpreting COVID-19 Test Results

Outlined testing for a current infection and interpreting the results:

  • Viral tests using swaps of the inside of the nose tell if there is a current infection of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that casus COVID-19.
  • Not everyone needs to be tested. The CDC has guidance for who should be tested, but decisions about testing are made by state and local health departments or healthcare providers.
  • If you have symptoms and want to get tested, call your healthcare provider first.
  • If you test positive, take protective steps as outlined on the CDC webpage.
  • If you test negative, you probably were not infected, but that does not mean you will not get sick. It is possible you were tested early in your infection, or you could be exposed later and develop the illness.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/testing/diagnostic-testing.html

CDC Released Recommendations for the General Public as to When to Wear Gloves

Gloves should be worn:

  • When cleaning
  • When caring for someone who is sick
  • Be sure to wash hands directly after removing the gloves

Gloves are not necessarily protective from COVID-19 and therefore not needed outside of these two instances. (For example when using a shopping cart, or an ATM). Guidelines and recommendations for glove use in a healthcare or workplace settings will differ from the recommendations for the general public.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/gloves.html

CDC Released Document Detailing CDC Activities and Initiatives Supporting the COVID-19 Response

Also includes the President’s plan for opening America up again. The document is a summary of efforts to date, resources developed and deployed, and the overarching strategy and criteria for a phased re-opening. Criteria and phases provided here.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/downloads/php/CDC-Activities-Initiatives-for-COVID-19-Response.pdf

CDC Released Key Resources for Leaders to Contain the Spread of COVID-19 During Reopening Activities

Provides guiding documents for:

  • Infection prevention and control
  • Laboratory capacity
  • Community mitigation
  • Surveillance and data analytics
  • Contact tracing
  • Staffing support

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/open-america/key-resources.html

CDC Cruise Ship Crew Disembarkations Were Updated

Includes the following vessels:

  • Disney Wonder
  • Liberty of the Seas
  • Carnival Fantasy
  • Norwegian Escape
  • Norwegian Epic
  • Ociania Marina
  • Oceania Sirena
  • Norwegian Joy

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/travelers/cruise-ship/cruise-ship-member-disembarkations.html

CDC Released FAQs For All Laboratories

Includes special content for:

  • Accessing laboratory testing
  • Test developers
  • Content regarding serology (antibody testing)
  • Ordering supplies

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/lab/testing-laboratories.html

CDC Released Guidance for What to Do If You Are Sick

Details were added to the guidance on what to do if you are sick including an infographic. A Self Checker link provides a quick decision tree on actions to be taken based on location, age, symptoms and exposure. Additional details for steps to prevent the spread if you are sick include:

  • Stay home except for medical care
  • Separate yourself from other people
  • Monitor symptoms
  • Call ahead before visiting your doctor
  • Wear cloth covering over your nose and mouth
  • Cover coughs and sneezes
  • Clean hands often
  • Avoid sharing personal household items
  • Clean all “high-touch” surfaces everyday
  • Use the decision tree on when to end home isolation

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/if-you-are-sick/steps-when-sick.html

CDC Considerations for Public Pools, Hot Tubs, and Water Playgrounds

The CDC directs facility managers to make decisions to reopen collaboratively with local health officials.

These strategies can prevent the spread of COVID-19:

  • Promote hand hygiene and ensure adequate supplies of soap, hand sanitizer, paper towels, no-touch trash cans
  • Encourage wearing cloth face coverings BUT NOT WHILE IN THE WATER.
  • Educate staff patrons and swimmers to stay home if ill
  • Provide ample signage to educate on above topics, use PA system with regular announcements, make use of social media and web-pages for messaging

These strategies will clean and maintain a healthy environment:

  • Clean and disinfect frequently touched surfaces daily or more
  • Consult with the company or engineer that designed the aquatic venue to decide which EPA approved disinfectants are best.
  • Establish methods for disinfecting shared furniture, equipment, towels, clothing. Keep cleaned separate from contaminated
  • Ensure ventilation systems of indoor spaces operate properly. Increase outdoor air circulation as much as possible without posing safety risk.
  • Ensure water systems are safet to use after prolonged shutdown to minimize risk of legionnaires’ disease.
  • Modify deck layouts to ensure social distancing. Provide visual cues or barriers as guides for patrons.
  • Discourage sharing of equipment (kickboards, noodles, etc) with those they don’t live with

These are strategies to consider for operations of an aquatic venue:

  • Life saving or emergency evacuation activities are exceptions to 6 feet social distancing rule.
  • Protect vulnerable staff by offering telework. Limit staff and patrons from local area only if feasible. Make use of staggered or rotated shifts
  • Lifeguards to remain focused on water safety, not monitoring of handwashing, use of face coverings, etc.
  • Adhere to local orders/policy regarding number of people allowed at gatherings. Encourage staggered drop off, parents consider if their children are capable of maintaining social distance, limit nonessential visitors, volunteers and activities.
  • Provide staff training for communication methods, signs & symptoms, leave policies, isolation requirements, back up staffing plan.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/parks-rec/aquatic-venues.html

CDC Released Refined Contact Tracing Training Plan

Topics covered include:

  • Boots on the ground foundational epidemiology
  • Contact Investigation Training
  • Ways to prevent the spread of COVID-19
  • Real-time legal response: Focus on quarantine, isolation, and other social distancing
  • Infection prevention and control in the household

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/contact-tracing/strategies-to-reduce-spread.html

CDC Released Guidance for Long Haul Truck Drivers

Steps include:

  • Maintaining social distance from truck stop attendants, store workers, dock workers, other truck drivers, anybody with symptoms. Avoid touching nose, mouth, eyes after contacting surfaces touched by others.
  • Make a plan with employer and family as to what to do if becoming symptomatic while on the road.
  • Limit exposure by
    • Limiting time spent outside of truck cab during fueling, loading and unloading
    • User electronic invoicing for fuel, deliveries, etc.
    • Use radio/phone to talk with dock managers or other drivers
    • Pack food, water & supplies to limit the number of stops
    • Keep truck well ventilated
  • Clean and disinfect high touch areas of the truck regularly (door handle, steering wheel, seat belt, turn signal, wiper controls, etc.)
  • If a third party must access the interior of truck (mechanic, other driver, inspector for example), request that the third party clean and disinfect before turning it back over.
  • Do not share tools or PPE such as hard hats, vests, safety glasses
  • Use pre-qualified truck stops or hotels identified by employer as having appropriate COVID-19 protections.
  • When team driving, wear cloth face coverings inside the truck and avoid sharing bedding in the sleeper berth.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/organizations/long-haul-trucking.html

CDC Decision Tool

CDC Updated Decision Tool for guidance in cleaning and disinfecting public spaces, workplaces, businesses, schools and homes. The tool continues the guidance of:

  • Develop a plan
  • Implement the plan
  • Maintain and revise

And clarifies the cleaning practices based on if the area is indoors, has been occupied in the past 7 days, is a frequently touched object, and if the object is porous or non-porous.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/cleaning-disinfecting-decision-tool.html

CDC Highlights FAQs from Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA)

CDC highlighted previously released guidance and FAQs from CISA for 16 Essential Critical Infrastructure Workers. There are 16 sectors considered critical: Communications, Chemical, Critical Manufacturing, Commercial Facilities, Dams, Defense Industrial Base, Emergency Services, Energy, Financial, Food and Agriculture, Government Facilities, Healthcare and Public Health, Information Technology, Nuclear Reactors, Materials and Waste, Transportation Systems, Water.

https://www.cisa.gov/identifying-critical-infrastructure-during-covid-19?deliveryName=USCDC_2067-DM27717

CDC Difference Between Quarantine and Isolation

  • Quarantine is used to keep someone who might have been exposed to COVID-19 away from others. Quarantine helps prevent spread of disease that can occur before a person knows they are sick or if they are infected with the virus without feeling symptoms. People in quarantine should stay home, separate themselves from others, monitor their health, and follow directions from their state or local health department.
  • Isolation is used to separate people infected with the virus (those who are sick with COVID-19 and those with no symptoms) from people who are not infected. People who are in isolation should stay home until it’s safe for them to be around others. In the home, anyone sick or infected should separate themselves from others by staying in a specific “sick room” or area and using a separate bathroom (if available).

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/if-you-are-sick/quarantine-isolation.html

  

CDC Air Travel Toolkit for Airline Partners

Toolkit includes messages, graphics and products to:

  • Support timely messaging to travelers and employees
  • Share CDC resources with airline partners
  • Help airline partners develop additional COVID-19 materials
  • Media includes Fact Sheets, PSAs, and sample social media posts, graphics for electronic messaging for Kiosks, printable posters.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/travelers/airline-toolkit.html

  

CDC General FAQs

Topics include risk, transmission, testing, diagnostics, treatment for COVID-19.

A specialty section on waste management was added:

  • Wastewater and sewage companies do not need to take special precautions beyond standard precautions and basic hygiene.
  • Medical waste from facilities with COVID-19 is no different than waste coming from facilities without COVID-19 patients.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/faq.html

  

CDC Infection Prevention FAQs for Healthcare Practitioners

Topic include guidance on:

  • Environmental Services (Housekeeping) PPE requirements and the practice of waiting sufficient time based on the number of room air changes per hour.
  • PPE supply preservation methods
  • Performing nasopharyngeal swabs
  • Long term care facility processes and practices

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/infection-control-faq.html

  

CDC Updated Resources for Management of COVID-19 in Correctional and Detention Facilities

Includes PowerPoint training. Training provides specifics on PPE, employee and intake inmate screening, and strategies to achieve social distancing.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/correction-detention/guidance-correctional-detention.html

  

CDC Standardizing How COVID-19 Testing Data is Reported

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/lab/reporting-lab-data.html

CDC Suggestions for Employees Coping with Stress and Building Resilience

Topics include:

  • Recognizing symptoms of stress such as feeling irritation, anger, uncertaintaty, tired, sad, lacking motivation, trouble sleeping or trouble concentrating.
  • Common work-related factors such as fear of virus exposure, familial responsibilities, different workload, lack of access to tools & equipment, uncertainty about the future, technical difficulties with new communication tools, different workspace and/or work schedule.
  • Tips to build resilience:
    • Communicate with co-workers openly about stressors and identify solutions, remind about mental health resources in workplace such as EAP.
    • Identify things over which you do not control, identify resources available.
    • Develop a consistent daily routine if possible, including regular sleep schedules, set time to end work (if from home).
    • Remind self and others we all have a role to contribute and understanding the facts about COVID-19 and how to protect yourself and others.
    • Take breaks from consuming pandemic related news and social media.
    • Connect with others, check in with others.
    • Continue any current treatment for mental health conditions.

Links to multiple reputable help lines/chats are included in the post:

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/mental-health-non-healthcare.html

  

CDC Updated Recommendations and Priorities for Testing Suspected Cases

High Priority:

  • Hospitalized patients with symptoms.
  • Healthcare facility workers, workers in congregate living settings, and first responders with symptoms.
  • Residents in long-term care facilities or other congregate living settings, including prisons and shelters, with symptoms.

Priority:

  • Persons with symptoms of potential COVID-19 infection, including: fever, cough, shortness of breath, chills, muscle pain, new loss of taste or smell, vomiting or diarrhea, and/or sore throat.
  • Persons without symptoms who are prioritized by health departments or clinicians, for any reason, including but not limited to: public health monitoring, sentinel surveillance, or screening of other asymptomatic individuals according to state and local plans.

Additionally, CDC updated recommendation to nucleic acid or antigen test to diagnose acute infection (not antibody testing).

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/clinical-criteria.html

  

CDC Cruise Ship Disembarkation Requirements

Compliance with CDC Requirements to Safely Disembark their Crew Members.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/travelers/cruise-ship/cruise-ship-member-disembarkations.html

  

CDC FAQ for People with Liver Disease

In some cases, severe COVID-19 infections can appear to cause liver damage.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/need-extra-precautions/liver-disease.html

  

CDC Staffing Resources

Public Health Staffing Workforce to support return to economic activities are broadening:

  • CDC resources include contact tracing staffing, staffing guidance, COVID-19 Response Corps, COVID-19 Job Corps, training resources.
  • Additional non-profit organizations from the US Digital Response, Regugee.rescue.org, Medical Reserve Corps, YMCA.
  • Staffing agencies providing support include Generation USA, AllSTEM Connections, LevelUP Capital Solutions, Securitas Critical Infrastructure Services.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/open-america/staffing.html

CDC Updated Web Page with FAQs for General Business

Topics include:

  • Handling suspected or confirmed cases of COVID-19 in the workplace, isolating employees immediately until meeting ‘discontinue home isolation’ criteria, and not requiring sick employees to provide a COVID-19 test result or healthcare provider’s note to validate the illness.
  • Reducing the spread such as erecting barriers to protect customers, cleaning and disinfecting surfaces, increasing physical distance between people, screening employees,
  • Promoting healthy operations by social distancing, drafting/updating non-punative “emergency sick leave” policies, manage meetings and conference to maintain social distancing
  • Cleaning and disinfection of the workplace instruction, and chemical usage, HVAC
  • Critical infrastructure and management/protection of essential employees.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/general-business-faq.html

  

CDC Released Contact Tracing Training and Guidance

Sample plan may be useful with large employers who have developed their own contact tracing teams/protocols. Content and learning objectives include:

  • Primary components of COVID-19 contact tracing
  • Requirements for protecting health information
  • COVID-19 contact tracing protocol

Toolkit for workers or volunteers with little or no experience conducting contact tracing found here.

In depth training materials contact tracing materials can be found here.

  

CDC Updates FAQs for Children and COVID-19

FAQs for Children and COVID-19 were updated to cover topics such as:

  • Children are at lower risk of severe illness
  • Strategies to keep your child healthy such as social distancing, hand hygiene, laundry guidance
  • Reminder that children under age 2 should not wear a cloth face covering or mask
  • Resources for talking with children about COVID-19 outbreaks
  • Managing activities and mental health while school’s out

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/faq.html#COVID-19-and-Children

  

CDC Updated Guidance for Caring for Someone Sick at Home

Guidance was updated for caring for someone sick at home to include:

  • Provide support and help cover basic needs such as pet care, grocery shopping/filling prescriptions
  • Treat symptoms with lots of fluid and rest
  • Watch for warning signs to escalate care if needed. Call 911 right away if caregivers observe difficulty breathing, persistent pain or pressure in the chest, new confusion or inability to wake up, bluish lips or face.
  • Caregivers are to limit contact, eat in separate rooms, avoid sharing personal items, wear face coverings and/or gloves and track their own health

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/if-you-are-sick/care-for-someone.html

  

CDC Released a Decision Memo

A decision memo guiding when to end isolation for persons with COVID-19 based on symptoms was released. Due to impracticality of continued testing during community transmission, there is a need to base end of isolation decisions on “time-since-illness-onset” and/or “time-since-recovery.”

  • Emerging evidence shows that viable COVID virus are no longer shed by most infected persons 10 days after the onset of symptoms.
  • Viable virus are unlikely to be shed from most infected persons 3 days after recovery (recover = no fever without medications)
  • It should be noted, these guidelines apply to the typical population and the isolation period will need to be longer for persons in high risk for serious illness

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/strategy-discontinue-isolation.html

  

CDC Provided Guidance if a Pet or Service Animal Tests Positive for COVID-19:

  • If positive for the virus that causes COVID-19, isolate the pet from everyone else, including other pets.
  • Do not wipe or bathe pet with chemical disinfectants, alcohol, hydrogen peroxide, or any other products not approved for animal use.
  • Only a few pets have been confirmed to be infected with the virus that causes COVID-19. Some pets did not show any signs of illness, but those pets that did get sick all had mild disease that could be taken care of at home. None have died from the infection.
  • If suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection, call a veterinarian.
  • Pets with confirmed infection with the virus that causes COVID-19 should be restricted to isolation in the home until a veterinarian or public health official has determined that they can be around other pets and people.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/daily-life-coping/positive-pet.html

CDC Updates for Guidance to Dental Clinics to Reduce Non-Symptomatic Transmission

Steps include:

  • Implement source control (require facemasks or cloth face coverings) for everyone entering the dental setting (dental healthcare personnel [DHCP][ 1 ] and patients), regardless of whether they have COVID-19 symptoms in order to address asymptomatic and pre-symptomatic transmission.
  • Actively screen everyone on the spot for fever and symptoms of COVID-19 before they enter the dental setting.
  • Actively screen Dental Healthcare Personnel on the spot for fever and symptoms before every shift.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/dental-settings.html

CDC Released Guidance for Veterinary Clinics’ Usage of PPE

Updates for guidance to Veterinary Clinics’ usage of PPE during animal care were released. The guidelines use a cautious approach and Veterinarians should be aware of the current shortage of PPE from high demand in human healthcare settings.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/veterinarians.html

CDC Updated Resources for Community and Faith-Based Leaders

Resources for community and faith-based leaders were updated including:

  • A checklist for leaders & administrators
  • FAQs
  • Cleaning and disinfecting public spaces: everyday steps
  • Video describing the role of the community health worker in the Latino community

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/organizations/index.html

  

CDC Updated Mathematical Models for Projected COVID-19 Deaths

Mathematical models for projected COVID-19 deaths were updated. There are now 9 institutions generating models predicting numbers of deaths for the next 30 days. Individual states models are also available.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/covid-data/forecasting-us.html

CDC Updated Guidance for Mail, Parcel, Food, and Grocery Delivery Drivers

Guidance for mail, parcel, food, and grocery delivery drivers was updated to educate this group of essential workers.

  • Primary mode of virus transmission is from person to person.
  • It may be possible that a person can become infected by touching a surface that has the virus on it and then touching their own mouth, nose, or eyes. However, this is not thought to be the main way the virus spreads.
  • Workers can protect themselves and others by
    • Stay home when sick
    • Wear a cloth face covering in public settings
    • Limit contact, maintain distance of 6 feet, do not share scanners, pens, tools with customers, do not touch face, if using machine washable gloves at the end of use store them for washing and then wash hands
    • Clean and disinfect high touch surfaces, pens, clipboards, electron signature pads
    • Exercise proper hand hygiene
      • Before, during and after food prep
      • Before eating
      • After using the toilet
      • After blowing your nose
      • Before and after work shifts, work breaks, making a delivery
      • After putting on, touching, or removing cloth face covering
      • After touching frequently touched surfaces such as doorbells or door handles
      • Before wearing and after removing cold-weather gloves
      • Before and after pumping gas

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/organizations/mail-parcel-drivers.html

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/organizations/food-grocery-drivers.html

  

CDC Released Guidance for Cleaning and Disinfecting a Non-Emergency Vehicle

  • If transporting people with known or suspected COVID-19 infection N95 respirator and eye protection is recommended to be worn by the driver. Passenger should wear cloth face covering. Contact should be limited, and hand hygiene should be practices
  • At a minimum, clean & disinfect commonly touched surfaces at the beginning and end of each shift and between transporting passengers who are visibly sick.
  • Keep doors/windows open for adequate ventilation when cleaning with chemicals. Use of disposable gloves and gown for cleaning activities are recommended.
  • For hard non-porous surfaces inside the vehicle (such as arm rests, door handles, seat belt buckles) clean with detergent or soap & water if visibly dirty. Then disinfect using EPA registered Antimicrobial products, diluted household bleach solutions, or Alcohol solution of 70%.
  • For soft or porous surfaces such as fabric seats, remove any visible contamination, use EPA approved products that are compatible with soft surfaces.
  • Gloves and gown should be removed after cleaning, immediately followed by proper hand hygiene. If gown not available, work clothes or uniform worn during cleaning and disinfecting should be laundered using the warmest appropriate water setting and dry items completely.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/organizations/disinfecting-transport-vehicles.html

  

CDC Clinical Tips for Healthcare Providers

Clinical tips for healthcare providers including specifics for:

  • Treatment and Prophylaxis: The NIH is providing guidance and updates on efficacy of drugs and therapeutics, there is currently no FDA approved post exposure treatment.
  • Symptoms and Diagnosis: Non-respiratory symptoms might appear before fever and lower respiratory tract symptoms. Children may have fever and cough at symptom onset as often as adult patients. CT scans should not be used to screen for COVID-19 or as a first-line test to diagnose COVID-19. CT should be used sparingly, reserved for hospitalized, symptomatic patients with specific clinical indications for CT.
  • Co-Infections in people with COVID-19 have been reported. Several patients with COVID-19 have been reported presenting with concurrent community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. Antibiotics are to be used appropriately.
  • Severe Illness: There is potential for some patients to rapidly deteriorate one week after illness onset, an average time to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) ranges from 8 to 12 days. Lymphopenia, neutrophilia, elevated serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels, elevated lactate dehydrogenase, high CRP, and high ferritin levels may be associated with greater illness severity.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/clinical-tips-for-healthcare-providers.html

  

CDC Provides Change in Return to Work Criteria for Healthcare Providers

  • Changed the name of the ‘non-test-based strategy’ to the ‘symptom-based strategy’ for those with symptoms and the ‘time-based strategy’ for those without symptoms and updated these to extend the duration of exclusion from work to at least 10 days since symptoms first appeared. This update was made based on evidence suggesting a longer duration of cultural viral shedding and will be revised as additional evidence becomes available.
  • Based on this extension of the symptom-based and time-based strategies, language about the test-based strategy being preferred was removed.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/return-to-work.html

  

CDC Genome Sequencing Effort

Genome sequencing effort being coordinated by the CDC is leveraging a network of clinical and public health laboratories, academic institutions and the private sectors. Goal is to generate information about the virus that will strengthen COVID-19 mitigation strategies.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/cases-updates/spheres.html

CDC Issues Guidance Document and Decision Tool for Re-Opening Facilities

Includes guidance to:

  • Develop, implement, revise plan
  • Actions based on area characteristics such as
    • Indoor v. outdoor
    • Occupied within the last 7 days
    • Frequently touched surfaces/objects
    • Types of Materials in the space
  • Considerations for custodial staff exposure and PPE needs are to be included in the plan
  • Include mitigation strategies for communities in the re-opening plan

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/reopen-guidance.html

  

CDC Contact Tracing Guidance Was Released

Contact tracing is a critical disease control measure implemented by health authorities to prevent the spread. These key concepts were highlighted.

  • Contact tracing is a specialized skill, includes interviewing patients, educations of contacts, adherence to confidentiality, understanding of medical and disease processes
  • Time is of the essence when identifying contacts who may have been exposed to begin isolation to stop the spread
  • Contact tracing in co-housing or congregate living settings is a priority

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/php/principles-contact-tracing.html

  

CDC Provided Communication Tool Kit

Communication tool kit for domestic travel was provided for SMS, social media, even roadway signage is provided for groups involved in educating travelers.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/travelers/transportation-toolkit.html

  

CDC Updated Downloadable Video Training Library

Video topics include:

  • Prevention & Symptoms (19 videos)
  • Travel (8 videos)
  • In Spanish (14 videos)
  • In American Sign Language (18 videos)
  • Recorded calls for public/private sector organizations (5 recordings)
  • Recorded CDC briefings (3 recordings)

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/communication/downloadable-videos.html

  

Updates Were Made to Alternative Disinfection Methods of Cleaning and Disinfecting a Building

Updates add to the existing guidance on how to clean & disinfect typical buildings including soft surfaces, electronics, surfaces, outdoor areas, laundering. Alternative Disinfection Methods:

  • Efficacy of alternative disinfection methods, such as ultrasonic waves, high intensity UV radiation and LED blue light against COVID-19 virus is not routinely reviewed by the EPA, therefore EPA cannot confirm whether, or under what circumstances such products might be effective against the spread of COVID-19
  • CDC does not recommend the use of sanitizing tunnels. There is no evidence that they are effective and chemicals used could cause skin, eyey, or respiratory irritation or damage
  • CDC only recommends use of the surface disinfectants identified on List Nexternal icon against the virus that causes COVID-19.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/disinfecting-building-facility.html

  

Updates Made to Timing for Cleaning and Disinfecting a Community Facility

Timing and location of cleaning and disinfection of surfaces

At a school, daycare center, office, or other facility that does not house people overnight:

  • Close off areas visited by the ill persons. Open outside doors and windows and use ventilating fans to increase air circulation in the area. Wait 24 hours or as long as practical before beginning cleaning and disinfection.
  • Cleaning staff should clean and disinfect all areas used by the ill persons, focusing especially on frequently touched surfaces.

At a facility that does house people overnight:

  • Follow Interim Guidance for US Institutions of Higher Education on working with state and local health officials to isolate ill persons and provide temporary housing as needed.
  • Close off areas visited by the ill persons. Open outside doors and windows and use ventilating fans to increase air circulation in the area. Wait 24 hours or as long as practical before beginning cleaning and disinfection.
  • In areas where ill persons are being housed in isolation, follow Interim Guidance for Environmental Cleaning and Disinfection for US Households with Suspected or Confirmed Coronavirus Disease 2019. This includes focusing on cleaning and disinfecting common areas where staff/others providing services may come into contact with ill persons but reducing cleaning and disinfection of bedrooms/bathrooms used by ill persons to as-needed.
  • In areas where ill persons have visited or used, continue routine cleaning and disinfection as in this guidance.
  • If it has been more than 7 days since the person with suspected/confirmed COVID-19 visited or used the facility, additional cleaning and disinfection is not necessary.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/organizations/cleaning-disinfection.html

  

Care for Breastfeeding Women and Infants

  • It is unknown do not know whether mothers with COVID-19 can transmit the virus via breast milk, but the limited data available suggest this is not likely to be a source of transmission.
  • Whether and how to start or continue breastfeeding should be determined by the mother in coordination with her family and healthcare providers.
  • A mother with confirmed COVID-19 should be counseled to take all possible precautions to avoid spreading the virus to her infant, including hand hygiene and wearing a cloth face covering.
  • Breastfeeding mothers working in high exposure risk settings such as healthcare or first responders, ideally would be provided a private, non-bathroom space for milk expression, which are then cleaned and disinfected between uses.

https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/care-for-breastfeeding-women.html

  

CDC Updated COVID-19 Symptoms

The COVID-19 symptom set was updated indicating people with COVID-19 have had a wide range of symptoms reported – ranging from mild symptoms to severe illness.

Symptoms may appear 2-14 days after exposure to the virus. People with these symptoms or combinations of symptoms may have COVID-19:

  • Cough
  • Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing

Or at least two of these symptoms:

  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Repeated shaking with chills
  • Muscle pain
  • Headache
  • Sore throat
  • New loss of taste or smell

People should seek medical attention immediately if they have any of these emergency warning signs:

  • Trouble breathing
  • Persistent pain or pressure in the chest
  • New confusion or inability to arouse
  • Bluish lips or face

*This list is not all-inclusive.

  

Meat and Poultry Processing Workers and Employers

Meat & Poultry processing facilities are considered essential workers and have experienced multiple outbreaks in the US. Meat and poultry processing employers are to follow the previously issued Guidance on preparing workplaces for COVID-19, in addition to the recommendations below.

  • A qualified workplace coordinator should be identified who will be responsible for COVID-19 assessment and control planning.
  • Configure workstations and communal work environments so the alignment of workers should follow recommendations for distancing and/or partitioning (See image).
  • Heating, ventilation, and A/C should minimize workers’ exposure by avoiding directing blowing air from one worker to another. Personal fans should be removed. Heat hazards need to be kept in consideration with these changes in air flow.
  • Handwashing stations or hand sanitors should be placed at multiple locations. Touch free options are optimal.
  • Add clock-in / clock-out stations that are spaced apart if possible.
  • Arrange breakrooms or identify alternative areas to accommodate adequate spacing for breaks and lunches.
  • A list of work practices includes; single file spaced lines, stagger schedules and break-times, mark floors to remind social distancing, discourage carpooling, educating workers on symptom recognition and reporting and encourage cloth face coverings.
  • Employers should consider screening workers before entry into the workplace based on a written program developed in coordination with local public health authorities and may include:
    • Verbal symptom check
    • Temperature check by trained personnel who wear proper PPE
  • Issue PPE per OSHA standards

CDC meat processing workstations medium

  

Guidance for Dental Settings During the COVID-19 Response

Dental Settings guidance was revised and updated as follows:

  • To address asymptomatic and pre-symptomatic transmission, implement source control (require facemasks or cloth face coverings) for everyone entering the dental setting (dental healthcare personnel [DHCP] and patients), regardless of whether they have COVID-19 symptoms.
  • Actively screen everyone on the spot for fever and symptoms of COVID-19 before they enter the dental setting.
  • Actively screen DHCP on the spot for fever and symptoms before every shift.

  

The CDC COVID-19 Response Corps is supplying staffing for local health authorities in three main ways:

  • CDC’s COVID-19 Response Corps. The COVID-19 Response Corps is a nationwide community-focused initiative to provide surge staffing and resources in state, tribal, local, and territorial health departments on the frontlines of the fight against COVID-19.
  • CDC Foundation: COVID-19 Corps Jobs. In support of CDC’S COVID-19 Response Corps, the CDC Foundation is urgently recruiting candidates for critical positions nationwide. Interested parties should go to the
  • CDC Foundation website and apply directly for positions.
  • COVID-19 Training Resources. CDC’s COVID-19 trainings are available on TRAIN, a national learning network that provides training opportunities to professionals who protect and improve the public’s health.
  • Imbedded field staff are distributed as indicated in the map below.

CDC Field Staff Embedded in Health Agencies

  

 

Therapeutic options for clinicians were released in summary.

Currently, there are no drugs or other therapeutics approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to prevent or treat COVID-19. Clinical management at this time includes:

  • Infection Prevention and Control
  • Supportive care including supplemental oxygen
  • Mechanical ventilatory support when indicated
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